ALMA resolves the remarkable molecular jet and rotating wind in the extremely radio-quiet galaxy NGC 1377
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020

Submillimetre and millimetre line and continuum observations are important in probing the morphology, column density, and dynamics of the molecular gas and dust around obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and their mechanical feedback. With very high-resolution (0.'' 02x0.'' 03 (2x3 pc)) ALMA 345 GHz observations of CO 3-2, HCO+ 4-3, vibrationally excited HCN 4-3 nu (2)=1f, and continuum we have studied the remarkable, extremely radio-quiet, molecular jet and wind of the lenticular galaxy NGC 1377. The outflow structure is resolved, revealing a 150 pc long, clumpy, high-velocity (similar to 600 km s(-1)), collimated molecular jet where the molecular emission is emerging from the spine of the jet with an average diameter of 3-7 pc. The jet widens to 10-15 pc about 25 pc from the centre, which is possibly due to jet-wind interactions. A narrow-angle (50 degrees -70 degrees), misaligned and rotating molecular wind surrounds the jet, and both are enveloped by a larger-scale CO-emitting structure at near-systemic velocity. The jet and narrow wind have steep radial gas excitation gradients and appear turbulent with high gas dispersion (sigma> 40 km s(-1)). The jet shows velocity reversals that we propose are caused by precession, or more episodic directional changes. We discuss the mechanisms powering the outflow, and we find that an important process for the molecular jet and narrow wind is likely magneto-centrifugal driving. In contrast, the large-scale CO-envelope may be a slow wind, or cocoon that stems from jet-wind interactions. An asymmetric, nuclear r similar to 2 pc dust structure with a high inferred molecular column density N(H-2) similar or equal to 1.8x10(24) cm(-2) is detected in continuum and also shows compact emission from vibrationally excited HCN. The nuclear dust emission is hot (T-d> 180 K) and its luminosity is likely powered by a buried AGN. The lopsided structure appears to be a warped disk, which is responsible for a significant part of the nuclear obscuration and possibly formed as a result of uneven gas inflows. The dynamical mass inside r=1.4 pc is estimated to 9(-3)(+2) x 10(6)M(circle dot) 9 - 3 + 2 x 10 6 M circle dot , implying that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) has a high mass with respect to the stellar velocity dispersion of NGC 1377. We suggest that the SMBH of NGC 1377 is currently in a state of moderate growth, at the end of a more intense phase of accretion and also evolving from a state of more extreme nuclear obscuration. The nuclear growth may be fuelled by low-angular momentum gas inflowing from the gas ejected in the molecular jet and wind. Such a feedback-loop of cyclic outflows and central accretion could explain why there is still a significant reservoir of molecular gas in this ageing, lenticular galaxy. A feedback-loop would be an effective process in growing the nuclear SMBH and thus would constitute an important phase in the evolution of NGC 1377. This also invites new questions as to SMBH growth processes in obscured, dusty galaxies.

galaxies: individual: NGC 1377

ISM: jets and outflows

galaxies: active

ISM: molecules

galaxies: evolution

galaxies: nuclei


Susanne Aalto

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik

Niklas Falstad

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik

Sebastien Muller

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

K. Wada

Kagoshima University

J. S. Gallagher

University of Wisconsin Madison

Sabine König

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

K. Sakamoto

Academia Sinica

Wouter Vlemmings

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik

Chiara Ceccobello

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik

K. Dasyra

University of Athens

F. Combes

Sorbonne Université

S. Garcia-Burillo

Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN)

Y. Oya

University of Tokyo

S. Martin

Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA)

European Southern Observatory Santiago

P. van der Werf

Universiteit Leiden

A. S. Evans

University of Virginia

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

J. Kotilainen

Turun Yliopisto

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 640 A104

Exploring the Hidden Dusty Nuclei of Galaxies (HIDDeN)

Europeiska forskningsrådet (ERC) (789410), 2018-10-01 -- 2023-09-30.


Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Atom- och molekylfysik och optik

Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik


Onsala rymdobservatorium



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