Forward Error Correction for Optical Transponders
Kapitel i bok, 2020

Forward error correction is an essential technique required in almost all communication systems to guarantee reliable data transmission close to the theoretical limits. In this chapter, we discuss the state-of-the-art forward error correction (FEC) schemes for fiber-optic communications. Following a historical overview of the evolution of FEC schemes, we first introduce the fundamental theoretical limits of common communication channel models and show how to compute them. These limits provide the reader with guidelines for comparing different FEC codes under various assumptions. We then provide a brief introduction to the general basic concepts of FEC, followed by an in-depth introduction to the main classes of codes for soft decision decoding and hard decision decoding. We include a wide range of performance curves, compare the different schemes, and give the reader guidelines on which FEC scheme to use. We also introduce the main techniques to combine coding and higher-order modulation (coded modulation), including constellation shaping. Finally, we include a guide on how to evaluate the performance of FEC in transmission experiments. We conclude the chapter with an overview of the properties of some state-of-the-art FEC schemes used in optical communications and an outlook.

Constellation shaping

Coded modulation

Forward error correction

Information theory

Channel coding

Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes

Staircase codes

Product codes

Achievable rates


Alexandre Graell I Amat

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Kommunikation, Antenner och Optiska Nätverk

Laurent Schmalen

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

Springer Handbooks

25228692 (ISSN) 25228706 (eISSN)

978-3-030-16249-8 (ISBN)

Distribuerad lagring för datalagring och trådlös leverans av data

Vetenskapsrådet (VR) (2016-04253), 2016-01-01 -- 2019-12-31.






Informations- och kommunikationsteknik



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