Animal- free skin permeation analysis using mass spectrometry imaging
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

Here we demonstrate an animal-free skin permeation analytical approach suitable for testing pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, occupational skin hazards and skin allergens. The method aims to replace or significantly reduce existing in-vivo models and improve on already established in-vitro models. This by offering a more sensitive and flexible analytical approach that can replace and/or complement existing methods in the OECD guidelines for skin adsorption (no 427 and no 428) and measure multiple compounds simultaneously in the skin while being able to also trace endogenous effects in cells. We demonstrate this here by studying how active ingredients in sunscreen permeate through left-over human skin, from routine surgery, in a in a Franz-cell permeation model. Two common sunscreens were therefore applied to the human skin and Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to trace the molecules through the skin. We show that that ToF-SIMS imaging can be applied in visualizing the distribution of Avobenzone, Bemotrizinol, Biscotrizole and Ethyl hexyl triazine at subcellular resolution in the skin. The UV-blockers could be visualized at the same time in one single experiment without any probes or antibodies used. The UV-blockers mostly remained in the stratum corneum. However, in certain features of the skin, such as sebaceous glands, the penetration of the UV-blockers was more prominent, and the compounds reached deeper into the epidermis.



Skin permeation



Mass spectrometry imaging


Marwa Munem

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Kemi och biokemi

Göteborgs universitet

August Djuphammar

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Kemi och biokemi

Linnéa Sjölander

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Kemi och biokemi

Lina Hagvall

Göteborgs universitet

Per Malmberg

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Kemi och biokemi

Toxicology in Vitro

0887-2333 (ISSN) 18793177 (eISSN)

Vol. 71 105062


Medicinsk laboratorie- och mätteknik

Analytisk kemi

Medicinsk bioteknik


Infrastruktur för kemisk avbildning





Mer information

Senast uppdaterat