Piecing Together the Puzzle: Mobility as a Service from the User and Service Design Perspectives. Discussion paper
Many public transport authorities are looking to how they can enable better mobility for their citizens, in congested urban settings as well as in poorly connected peripheral communities and rural areas. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is increasingly being presented as a possible solution in both contexts, although the path forward has proven far more difficult than hoped. Part of this may lie in underestimating the complexities of achieving integrated mobility services, which is often linked to a lack of practical experience in implementing and running MaaS services. To quote one project partner in a MaaS pilot project, who represented a public organisation new to MaaS but with long experience within one transport silo, and who shall remain nameless: “This was a lot harder than we expected”. So, what should one expect? Why has the MaaS vision not naturally coalesced? The purpose of this first discussion paper in the series is to try to understand the bigger picture of MaaS primarily from the user perspective but in an interplay with the service perspective, as the service offer and design inherently affect the use of the service. Questions include: What is MaaS? and What could it be?; Who are the (potential) users? and What do they stand to gain?; and How can related research and tools be utilised by public authorities and transport organisations to more proactively engage in MaaS developments so as to improve sustainability outcomes (ecological, economic and social) for users, public and private organisations, and society.