Quantum Electro- and Acoustodynamics in Waveguides
Doktorsavhandling, 2021

The study of light-matter interaction in superconducting quantum circuits has seen remarkable progress over the last $20$ years. By engineering artificial atoms, novel quantum phenomena have been demonstrated, and old ideas have come into a new light. Beyond their application to basic science, the prospect of implementing large-scale quantum information processing with superconducting circuits has fueled a rapid development of surrounding technologies, with ever-increasing control over their behavior as a result. The field's success stems primarily from the flexible design and strong non-linearity of the artificial atom, whose coherent interaction with both electrical and mechanical degrees of freedom has opened many doors for science.

This thesis deals with the interaction between artificial atoms and quantum fields in one-dimensional waveguides. The waveguide represents a one-dimensional environment for the atom, which we use to study the properties of open quantum systems. All quantum systems are, in fact, open, and interactions between the system and its environment lead inevitably to a loss of energy and quantum coherence. A continuous loss of information into the environment is called a Markovian process. The work contained in this thesis indicates that deviations from a Markovian process can be detected in the steady state of driven systems. This could simplify the detection of non-Markovianity in open quantum systems, as no information about the system's transient dynamics would be necessary.

Specifically, this thesis considers both electromagnetic fields in microwave transmission lines and acoustic fields in the form of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) traveling on the surface of solids. The recent realization of artificial atoms interacting with acoustic waves has opened up a new research field called quantum acoustics. We have built a model of the interaction between atoms and SAWs that predicts the existence of a new regime where the atom forms its own cavity. Additionally, we have considered synthesizing electromagnetically induced transparency, a quantum optics phenomena in opaque media where the absorption of photons is canceled, in waveguides using multiple closely spaced two-level systems.

Some of the work in this thesis represents experimental work done in collaboration. In the first experiment, we studied the routing of acoustic waves at the quantum level. In the other experiment, we demonstrated electromagnetically induced transparency by creating an effective $\Lambda$ system using a giant artificial atom. This thesis reviews the numerical techniques used to model these experiments.

Opponent: Klaus Møllmer, Aarhus University, Denmark


Andreas Josefsson Ask

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Tillämpad kvantfysik

Cavity-free vacuum-Rabi splitting in circuit quantum acoustodynamics

PHYSICAL REVIEW A,; Vol. 99(2019)

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Towards phonon routing: controlling propagating acoustic waves in the quantum regime

New Journal of Physics,; Vol. 21(2019)

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Engineering the level structure of a giant artificial atom in waveguide quantum electrodynamics

PHYSICAL REVIEW A,; Vol. 103(2021)

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Ask, A., Fang, L., Kockum, A. F., Synthesizing electromagnetically induced transparency without a control field in waveguide QED using small and giant atoms

Ask, A., Johansson, G., Non-Markovian steady states of a driven two-level system

When the theory of quantum mechanics was first developed in the early 20th century, it was complicated to study quantum systems in isolation. The experimental techniques at the time were not sophisticated enough to explore most quantum behaviors predicted by theory. Yet, the world experienced the first quantum revolution, with many fundamental discoveries and new technological applications. Today, we experience what can be referred to as the second quantum revolution—primarily driven by tremendous progress in the engineering of small-scale microscopic systems that we can manipulate with an ever-increasing level of control. One of the most exciting applications is a quantum information processor, which can potentially outperform classical computers in specific tasks, e.g., in simulations of other quantum systems. This could then lead to discoveries of new useful materials and drugs.

In this thesis, we theoretically study the interaction of artificially made atoms with one-dimensional quantum fields. Artificial atoms have properties chosen by the engineer, unlike natural atoms, whose properties are selected by nature. Such powers in design have led to many novel demonstrations of fundamental quantum phenomena. These atoms also constitute the fundamental building blocks of a quantum information processor, and many of the systems and theoretical techniques discussed in this thesis have applications in this direction.


Nanovetenskap och nanoteknik (SO 2010-2017, EI 2018-)


Grundläggande vetenskaper


Atom- och molekylfysik och optik



Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie: 4929


Chalmers tekniska högskola


Opponent: Klaus Møllmer, Aarhus University, Denmark

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