Optimal Control of Electric Bus Lines
This thesis proposes a scalable resolution method for the bus line regularity and eco-driving optimal control problem for electric buses. It is shown how this problem can be recast as a smooth nonlinear program by making some specific modelling choices, thus circumventing the need for integer decision variables to capture bus stop locations and avoiding the infamous complexity of mixed-integer programs. Since this nonlinear program is weakly coupled, a distributed optimization procedure can be used to solve it, through a bi-level decomposition of the optimization problem. As a result, the bulk of the computations needed can be carried out in parallel, possibly aboard each individual bus. The latter option reduces the communication loads as well as the amount of computations that need to be performed centrally, which makes the proposed resolution method scalable in the number of buses. Using the concept of receding horizons to introduce closed-loop control, the optimized control trajectories obtained were applied in a stochastic simulation environment and compared with classical holding and velocity control baselines. We report a faster dissipation of bus bunching by the proposed method as well as energy efficiency improvements of up to 9.3% over the baselines.
Model predictive control
Chalmers, Elektroteknik, System- och reglerteknik, Reglerteknik
Hierarchical Control of Electric Bus Lines
Paper i proceeding
“Lacombe, R., Gros, S., Murgovski, N., and Kulcsár, B. Distributed optimization for bunching mitigation and eco-driving of electric bus lines.”
Optimal energihantering för nätverk av elektrifierade bussar (OPNET)
Energimyndigheten, 2018-10-01 -- 2021-12-31.
Transportteknik och logistik
Chalmers tekniska högskola
Opponent: Pr. Oded Cats, TU Delft, The Netherlands