Seaweed Proteins as a Source of Bioactive Peptides
Seaweeds have gained great attention as a vegetarian and sustainable marine source of protein which do not need irrigation, arable land and fertilization. Besides, seaweeds are considered as an untapped resource for discovering bioactive compounds with health benefits where bioactive peptides have shown outstanding potential. This review provides a detailed overview of available scientific knowledge on production methods, bioactivity and application of peptides from seaweed proteins. The emphasize is on the effects form seaweed varieties and peptide production condition on the bioactivity of the peptides and their potential health benefits. Bioactive properties of seaweed peptides including antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities and other potential health benefits have been discussed. It also covers current challenges and required future research and innovations for the successful application of seaweeds proteins as a sustainable source of bioactive peptides. Effects from seasonal variation of seaweed composition on the bioactivity of their peptides, difficulties in the extraction of proteins from seaweed complex structure, scalability and reproducibility of the developed methods for the production of bioactive peptides, the safety of the peptides are examples of highlighted challenges. Further studies on the bioavailability of the seaweed bioactive peptides and validation of the results in animal models and human trials are needed before their application as functional foods or pharmaceutical ingredients.