Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign
Reviewartikel, 2021

In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ∼6.5 × 109 M o˙. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilities in space and on the ground, to arrange an extensive, quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign. This Letter presents the results and analysis of this campaign, as well as the multi-wavelength data as a legacy data repository. We captured M87 in a historically low state, and the core flux dominates over HST-1 at high energies, making it possible to combine core flux constraints with the more spatially precise very long baseline interferometry data. We present the most complete simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrum of the active nucleus to date, and discuss the complexity and caveats of combining data from different spatial scales into one broadband spectrum. We apply two heuristic, isotropic leptonic single-zone models to provide insight into the basic source properties, but conclude that a structured jet is necessary to explain M87's spectrum. We can exclude that the simultaneous γ-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton emission in the same region producing the EHT mm-band emission, and further conclude that the γ-rays can only be produced in the inner jets (inward of HST-1) if there are strongly particle-dominated regions. Direct synchrotron emission from accelerated protons and secondaries cannot yet be excluded.

Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei

Radio cores

High energy astrophysics

Active galactic nuclei

Accretion

Astrophysical black holes

Författare

Juan-Carlos Algaba

University of Malaya

Jadyn Anczarski

Villanova University

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Mislav Baloković

Yale University

S. Chandra

North-West University

Yuzhu Cui

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

A.D. Falcone

Pennsylvania State University

M. Giroletti

Istituto di Radioastronomia

C. Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

K. Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Daryl Haggard

McGill University

S.G. Jorstad

Boston University

A. Kaur

Pennsylvania State University

Tomohisa Kawashima

University of Tokyo

G. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Jae-Young Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

M. Kino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

S. Komossa

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

E.V. Kravchenko

Istituto di Radioastronomia

T.P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Sang Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

R.S. Lu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Lucchini

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

S. Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Joseph Neilsen

Villanova University

M.A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

G. Principe

Istituto di Radioastronomia

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

M.T. Reynolds

University of Michigan

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

S.S. Savchenko

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

K.E. Williamson

Boston University

Kazunori Akiyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Antxon Alberdi

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Richard Anantua

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

R. Azulay

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. K. Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Bradford A. Benson

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

R. Blundell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

W. Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

K. L. Bouman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Hope Boyce

McGill University

M. Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

C. D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

D. Broguière

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

A. Chael

Princeton University

Chi Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

S. Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Paul M. Chesler

Harvard University

I. Cho

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Fairfield University

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Thomas M. Crawford

University of Chicago

G. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Alejandro Cruz-Osorio

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

R. P. Deane

University of Witwatersrand

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Observatoire de Paris

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

S. Doeleman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Heino Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Joseph R. Farah

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

V. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

H. Alyson Ford

University of Arizona

R. Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

P. Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Antonio Fuentes

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

R. Gold

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

J. L. Gomez

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Minfeng Gu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

M. Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R. Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

P. Ho

Academia Sinica

M. Honma

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Chih Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

David H. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

S. Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Radboud Universiteit

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

R. Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. M. Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Dong-Jin Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Yutaro Kofuji

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

M. Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Cheng-Yu Kuo

Academia Sinica

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Aviad Levis

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Yan Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

R. Lico

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Greg Lindahl

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Jun Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Kuo Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto di Radioastronomia

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

L. Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

N. R. Macdonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicola Marchili

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

D. P. Marrone

University of Arizona

A. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of Arizona

K. M. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

James M. Moran

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kotaro Moriyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

M. Mościbrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

C. Müller

Radboud Universiteit

Gibwa Musoke

Radboud Universiteit

Alejandro Mus Mejías

Universitat de Valencia

Hiroshi Nagai

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

N. M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

University of Witwatersrand

Antonios Nathanail

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Roberto Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

A. Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Héctor Olivares

Radboud Universiteit

G.N. Ortiz-León

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Özel

University of Arizona

Daniel C.M. Palumbo

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

U. L. Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Vincent Piétu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard L. Plambeck

University of California

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Felix M. Pötzl

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-López

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Academia Sinica

R. Rao

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M.G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Luciano Rezzolla

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Angelo Ricarte

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Bart Ripperda

Simons Foundation

F. Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

H. Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kazi L.J. Rygl

Istituto di Radioastronomia

S. Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sánchez-Arguelles

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

T. Savolainen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

F. P. Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Zhi Qiang Shen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

He Sun

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Alexandra J. Tetarenko

East Asian Observatory

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

R. P. J. Tilanus

Radboud Universiteit

M. Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

E. Traianou

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

S. Trippe

Seoul National University

I. van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

H. J. van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

D. Ward-Thompson

University of Central Lancashire

John Wardle

Brandeis University

J. Weintroub

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Wielgus

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Doosoo Yoon

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

A. Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Feng Yuan

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

A.J. Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

G. Y. Zhao

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

Shan-Shan Zhao

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

G. Principe

Istituto di Radioastronomia

M. Giroletti

Istituto di Radioastronomia

F. D'Ammando

Istituto di Radioastronomia

M. Orienti

Istituto di Radioastronomia

H. Abdalla

North-West University

R. M. Adam

École polytechnique

F. Aharonian

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

F. Ait Benkhali

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

E.O. Angüner

Aix-Marseille Université

C. Arcaro

North-West University

C. Armand

Université Grenoble Alpes

T. Armstrong

University of Oxford

H. Ashkar

Université Paris-Saclay

M. Backes

North-West University

V. Baghmanyan

Polish Academy of Sciences

V. Barbosa Martins

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

A. Barnacka

Uniwersytet Jagiellonski w Krakowie

M. Barnard

North-West University

Y. Becherini

Linnéuniversitetet

D. Berge

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

K. Bernlöhr

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

B. Bi

Universität Tübingen

M. Böttcher

North-West University

C. Boisson

LUTH - Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories

J. Bolmont

Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC)

M. De Bony De Lavergne

Université Grenoble Alpes

M. Breuhaus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

F. Brun

Université Paris-Saclay

P. Brun

Université Paris-Saclay

M. Bryan

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

M. Büchele

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

T. Bulik

Uniwersytet Warszawski

T. Bylund

Linnéuniversitetet

S. Caroff

Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC)

A. Carosi

Université Grenoble Alpes

S. Casanova

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

T. Chand

North-West University

A. Chen

University of Witwatersrand

G. Cotter

University of Oxford

M. Curyło

Uniwersytet Warszawski

J. Damascene Mbarubucyeye

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

I.D. Davids

University of Namibia

J. Davies

University of Oxford

Christoph Deil

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

J. Devin

Université de Bordeaux

P. Dewilt

University of Adelaide

L. Dirson

Universität Hamburg

A. Djannati-Ataï

Université Paris Descartes

A. Dmytriiev

LUTH - Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories

A. Donath

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

V. Doroshenko

Universität Tübingen

C. Duffy

University Of Leicester

J. Dyks

Polish Academy of Sciences

K. Egberts

Universität Potsdam

F. Eichhorn

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

S. Einecke

University of Adelaide

G. Emery

Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC)

J.-P. Ernenwein

Aix-Marseille Université

K. Feijen

University of Adelaide

S. Fegan

École polytechnique

A. Fiasson

Université Grenoble Alpes

G. Fichet De Clairfontaine

LUTH - Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories

G. Fontaine

École polytechnique

S. Funk

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

M. Füßling

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

S. Gabici

Université Paris Descartes

Y.A. Gallant

Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier

G. Giavitto

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

L. Giunti

Université Paris-Saclay

D. Glawion

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

J.F. Glicenstein

Université Paris-Saclay

D. Gottschall

Universität Tübingen

M.-H. Grondin

Université de Bordeaux

J. Hahn

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Haupt

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

G. Hermann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

J.A. Hinton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

W. Hofmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Hoischen

Universität Potsdam

T.L. Holch

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

M. Holler

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

M. Hörbe

University of Oxford

D. Horns

Universität Hamburg

D. Huber

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

M. Jamrozy

Uniwersytet Jagiellonski w Krakowie

D. Jankowsky

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

F. Jankowsky

Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl

A. Jardin-Blicq

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

V. Joshi

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

I. Jung-Richardt

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

E. Kasai

University of Namibia

M.A. Kastendieck

Universität Hamburg

K. Katarzyński

Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu

U. Katz

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

D. Khangulyan

Rikkyo University

B. Khélifi

Université Paris Descartes

S. Klepser

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

W. Kluźniak

Polish Academy of Sciences

Nu. Komin

University of Witwatersrand

R. Konno

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

K. Kosack

Université Paris-Saclay

D. Kostunin

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

M. Kreter

North-West University

G. Lamanna

Université Grenoble Alpes

A. Lemiere

Université Paris Descartes

M. Lemoine-Goumard

Université de Bordeaux

J.-P. Lenain

Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC)

C. Levy

Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC)

T. Lohse

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

I. Lypova

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

J. Mackey

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

J. Majumdar

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

D. Malyshev

Universität Tübingen

D. Malyshev

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

V. Marandon

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

P. Marchegiani

University of Witwatersrand

A. Marcowith

Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier

A. Mares

Université de Bordeaux

G. Martí-Devesa

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

R. Marx

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

G. Maurin

Université Grenoble Alpes

P.J. Meintjes

University of the Free State

M. Meyer

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

R. Moderski

Polish Academy of Sciences

M. Mohamed

Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl

L. Mohrmann

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

A. Montanari

Université Paris-Saclay

C. Moore

University Of Leicester

P. Morris

University of Oxford

E. Moulin

Université Paris-Saclay

J. Muller

École polytechnique

T. Murach

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

K. Nakashima

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

A. Nayerhoda

Polish Academy of Sciences

M. De Naurois

École polytechnique

H. Ndiyavala

North-West University

F. Niederwanger

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

J. Niemiec

Polish Academy of Sciences

L. Oakes

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

P. O'Brien

University Of Leicester

H. Odaka

University of Tokyo

S. Ohm

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

L. Olivera-Nieto

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

E. De Ona Wilhelmi

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

M. Ostrowski

Uniwersytet Jagiellonski w Krakowie

M. Panter

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

S. Panny

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

R.D. Parsons

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

G. Peron

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

B. Peyaud

Université Paris-Saclay

Q. Piel

Université Grenoble Alpes

S. Pita

Université Paris Descartes

V. Poireau

Université Grenoble Alpes

A. Priyana Noel

Uniwersytet Jagiellonski w Krakowie

D.A. Prokhorov

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

H. Prokoph

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

G. Pühlhofer

Universität Tübingen

M. Punch

Linnéuniversitetet

A. Quirrenbach

Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl

R. Rauth

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

P. Reichherzer

Université Paris-Saclay

A. Reimer

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

O. Reimer

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

Q. Remy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Renaud

Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier

F. Rieger

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

L. Rinchiuso

Université Paris-Saclay

C. Romoli

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

G. Rowell

University of Adelaide

B. Rudak

Polish Academy of Sciences

E. Ruiz-Velasco

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

V. Sahakian

Yerevan Physics Institute

S. Sailer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

D.A. Sanchez

Université Grenoble Alpes

A. Santangelo

Universität Tübingen

M. Sasaki

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

M. Scalici

Universität Tübingen

H.M. Schutte

North-West University

U. Schwanke

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

S. Schwemmer

Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl

M. Seglar-Arroyo

Université Paris-Saclay

M. Senniappan

Linnéuniversitetet

A.S. Seyffert

North-West University

N. Shafi

University of Witwatersrand

K. Shiningayamwe

University of Namibia

R. Simoni

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

A. Sinha

Université Paris Descartes

H. Sol

LUTH - Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories

A. Specovius

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

S. Spencer

University of Oxford

M. Spir-Jacob

Université Paris Descartes

Ł. Stawarz

Uniwersytet Jagiellonski w Krakowie

L. Sun

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

R. Steenkamp

University of Namibia

C. Stegmann

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

S. Steinmassl

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Steppa

Universität Potsdam

T. Takahashi

University of Tokyo

T. Tavernier

Université Paris-Saclay

A.M. Taylor

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

R. Terrier

Université Paris Descartes

D. Tiziani

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

M. Tluczykont

Universität Hamburg

L. Tomankova

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

C. Trichard

École polytechnique

M. Tsirou

Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier

R. Tuffs

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Y. Uchiyama

Rikkyo University

D.J. Van Der Walt

North-West University

C. Van Eldik

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

C. Van Rensburg

North-West University

B. Van Soelen

University of the Free State

G. Vasileiadis

Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier

J. Veh

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

C. Venter

North-West University

P. Vincent

Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC)

J. Vink

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

H.J. Völk

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

T. Vuillaume

Université Grenoble Alpes

Z. Wadiasingh

North-West University

S.J. Wagner

Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl

J. Watson

University of Oxford

F. Werner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

R. White

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Wierzcholska

Polish Academy of Sciences

Yu Wun Wong

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

A. Yusafzai

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nurnberg (FAU)

M. Zacharias

North-West University

R. Zanin

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

D. Zargaryan

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

A.A. Zdziarski

Polish Academy of Sciences

A. Zech

LUTH - Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories

S.J. Zhu

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

J. Zorn

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

S. Zouari

Université Paris Descartes

N. Żywucka

North-West University

V.A. Acciari

Universidad de la Laguna

S. Ansoldi

Università degli Studi di Udine

L.A. Antonelli

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Arbet Engels

Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH)

M. Artero

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

K. Asano

University of Tokyo

D. Baack

Technische Universität Dortmund

A. Babić

Sveučilište u Zagrebu

A. Baquero

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

U. Barres De Almeida

Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas

J.A. Barrio

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

J. Becerra González

Universidad de la Laguna

W. Bednarek

Uniwersytet Lodzki

L. Bellizzi

Università degli Studi di Siena

E. Bernardini

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

M. Bernardos

Università di Padova

A. Berti

Universita degli Studi di Torino

J. Besenrieder

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

W. Bhattacharyya

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

C. Bigongiari

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Biland

Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH)

O. Blanch

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

G. Bonnoli

Università degli Studi di Siena

Ž. Bošnjak

Sveučilište u Zagrebu

G. Busetto

Università di Padova

R. Carosi

Universita di Pisa

G. Ceribella

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Cerruti

Universitat de Barcelona

Y. Chai

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Chilingarian

Yerevan Physics Institute

S. Cikota

Sveučilište u Zagrebu

S.M. Colak

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

E. Colombo

Universidad de la Laguna

J.L. Contreras

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

J. Cortina

Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (Ciemat)

S. Covino

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

G. D'Amico

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

V. D'Elia

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

P. Da Vela

Universita di Pisa

F. Dazzi

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. De Angelis

Università di Padova

B. De Lotto

Università degli Studi di Udine

M. Delfino

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

J. Delgado

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

C. Delgado Mendez

Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (Ciemat)

D. Depaoli

Universita degli Studi di Torino

F. Di Pierro

Universita degli Studi di Torino

L. Di Venere

Politecnico di Bari

E. Do Souto Espineira

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

D. Dominis Prester

University of Rijeka

A. Donini

Università degli Studi di Udine

D. Dorner

Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg

M. Doro

Università di Padova

D. Elsaesser

Technische Universität Dortmund

V. Fallah Ramazani

Turun Yliopisto

A. Fattorini

Technische Universität Dortmund

G. Ferrara

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

M.V. Fonseca

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

L. Font

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB)

C. Fruck

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

S. Fukami

University of Tokyo

R. García López

Universidad de la Laguna

M. Garczarczyk

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

S. Gasparyan

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia

M. Gaug

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB)

N. Giglietto

Politecnico di Bari

F. Giordano

Politecnico di Bari

P. Gliwny

Uniwersytet Lodzki

N. Godinović

University of Split

J.G. Green

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

D. Green

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

D. Hadasch

University of Tokyo

A. Hahn

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

L. Heckmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

J. Herrera

Universidad de la Laguna

J. Hoang

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

D. Hrupec

Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek

M. Hütten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

T. Inada

University of Tokyo

S. Inoue

RIKEN

K. Ishio

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Y. Iwamura

University of Tokyo

I. Jiménez

Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (Ciemat)

J. Jormanainen

Turun Yliopisto

L. Jouvin

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

Y. Kajiwara

Kyoto University

M. Karjalainen

Universidad de la Laguna

D. Kerszberg

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

Y. Kobayashi

University of Tokyo

H. Kubo

Kyoto University

J. Kushida

Tokai University

A. Lamastra

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

D. Lelas

University of Split

F. Leone

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

E. Lindfors

Turun Yliopisto

S. Lombardi

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

F. Longo

Università degli Studi di Udine

R. López-Coto

Università di Padova

M. López-Moya

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

A. López-Oramas

Universidad de la Laguna

S. Loporchio

Politecnico di Bari

B. Machado De Oliveira Fraga

Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas

C. Maggio

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB)

P. Majumdar

Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

M. Makariev

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

M. Mallamaci

Università di Padova

G. Maneva

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

M. Manganaro

University of Rijeka

K. Mannheim

Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg

L. Maraschi

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

M. Mariotti

Università di Padova

M. Martínez

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

D. Mazin

University of Tokyo

S. Menchiari

Università degli Studi di Siena

S. Mender

Technische Universität Dortmund

S. Mićanović

University of Rijeka

D. Miceli

Università degli Studi di Udine

T. Miener

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

M. Minev

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

J.M. Miranda

Università degli Studi di Siena

R. Mirzoyan

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

E. Molina

Universitat de Barcelona

A. Moralejo

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

D. Morcuende

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

V. Moreno

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB)

E. Moretti

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

V. Neustroev

Oulun Yliopisto

C. Nigro

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

K. Nilsson

Turun Yliopisto

K. Nishijima

Tokai University

K. Noda

University of Tokyo

S. Nozaki

Kyoto University

Y. Ohtani

University of Tokyo

T. Oka

Kyoto University

J. Otero-Santos

Universidad de la Laguna

S. Paiano

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

M. Palatiello

Università degli Studi di Udine

D. Paneque

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

R. Paoletti

Università degli Studi di Siena

J.M. Paredes

Universitat de Barcelona

L. Pavletić

University of Rijeka

P. Penil

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

C. Perennes

Università di Padova

M. Persic

Università degli Studi di Udine

P. G. Prada Moroni

Universita di Pisa

E. Prandini

Università di Padova

C. Priyadarshi

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

I. Puljak

University of Split

W. Rhode

Technische Universität Dortmund

M. Ribó

Universitat de Barcelona

J. Rico

Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Bellaterra

C. Righi

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Rugliancich

Universita di Pisa

L. Saha

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

N. Sahakyan

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia

T. Saito

University of Tokyo

S. Sakurai

University of Tokyo

K. Satalecka

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

F.G. Saturni

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

B. Schleicher

Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg

K. Schmidt

Technische Universität Dortmund

T. Schweizer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

J. Sitarek

Uniwersytet Lodzki

I. Šnidarić

Ruder Boskovic Institute

D. Sobczynska

Uniwersytet Lodzki

A. Spolon

Università di Padova

A. Stamerra

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

D. Strom

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Strzys

University of Tokyo

Y. Suda

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

T. Surić

Ruder Boskovic Institute

M. Takahashi

University of Tokyo

F. Tavecchio

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

P. Temnikov

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

T. Terzić

University of Rijeka

M. Teshima

University of Tokyo

L. Tosti

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare

S. Truzzi

Università degli Studi di Siena

A. Tutone

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

S. Ubach

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB)

J. Van Scherpenberg

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

G. Vanzo

Universidad de la Laguna

M. Vazquez Acosta

Universidad de la Laguna

S. Ventura

Università degli Studi di Siena

V. Verguilov

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

C.F. Vigorito

Universita degli Studi di Torino

V. Vitale

Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata

I. Vovk

University of Tokyo

M. Will

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Wunderlich

Università degli Studi di Siena

D. Zarić

University of Split

C.B. Adams

Columbia University

W. Benbow

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

A. Brill

Columbia University

M. Capasso

Columbia University

J.L. Christiansen

California Polytechnic State University

A.J. Chromey

Iowa State University

M.K. Daniel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M. Errando

Washington University in St. Louis

K.A. Farrell

University College Dublin

Q. Feng

Columbia University

J.P. Finley

Purdue University

L. Fortson

University of Minnesota

A. Furniss

The California State University

A. Gent

Georgia Institute of Technology

C. Giuri

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

T. Hassan

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

O. Hervet

University of California at Santa Cruz

J. Holder

University of Delaware

G. Hughes

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

T.B. Humensky

Columbia University

W. Jin

University of Alabama

P. Kaaret

University of Iowa

M. Kertzman

DePauw University

D. Kieda

University of Utah

S. Kumar

McGill University

M.J. Lang

National University of Ireland

M. Lundy

McGill University

G. Maier

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

P. Moriarty

National University of Ireland

R. Mukherjee

Columbia University

D. Nieto

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

M. Nievas-Rosillo

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

S. O'Brien

McGill University

R.A. Ong

University of California

A.N. Otte

Georgia Institute of Technology

S. Patel

University of Iowa

K. Pfrang

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

M. Pohl

Universität Potsdam

R.R. Prado

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

E. Pueschel

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

J. Quinn

University College Dublin

K. Ragan

McGill University

P.T. Reynolds

Cork Institute Of Technology

D. Ribeiro

Columbia University

G.T. Richards

University of Delaware

E. Roache

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

C. Rulten

University of Minnesota

J.L. Ryan

University of California

M. Santander

University of Alabama

G.H. Sembroski

Purdue University

R. Shang

University of California

A. Weinstein

Iowa State University

D.A. Williams

University of California at Santa Cruz

T.J. Williamson

University of Delaware

Tomoya Hirota

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Lang Cui

University of Utah

Kotaro Niinuma

Yamaguchi University

Hyunwook Ro

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Nobuyuki Sakai

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Satoko Sawada-Satoh

Yamaguchi University

Kiyoaki Wajima

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Na Wang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Xiang Liu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Yoshinori Yonekura

Ibaraki University

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 911 1 L11

Ämneskategorier

Acceleratorfysik och instrumentering

Subatomär fysik

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/abef71

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2021-06-11