Linking in situ melt pool monitoring to melt pool size distributions and internal flaws in laser powder bed fusion
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021
In situ monitoring of the melt pools in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) has enabled the elucidation of process phenomena. There has been an increasing interest in also using melt pool monitoring to identify process anomalies and control the quality of the manufactured parts. However, a better understanding of the variability of melt pools and the relation to the incidence of internal flaws are necessary to achieve this goal. This study aims to link distributions of melt pool dimensions to internal flaws and signal characteristics obtained from melt pool monitoring. A process mapping approach is employed in the manufacturing of Hastelloy X, comprising a vast portion of the process space. Ex situ measurements of melt pool dimensions and analysis of internal flaws are correlated to the signal obtained through in situ melt pool monitoring in the visible and near-infrared spectra. It is found that the variability in melt pool dimensions is related to the presence of internal flaws, but scatter in melt pool dimensions is not detectable by the monitoring system employed in this study. The signal intensities are proportional to melt pool dimensions, and the signal is increasingly dynamic following process conditions that increase the generation of spatter.
Lack of fusion