Review - Reference Electrodes in Li-Ion and Next Generation Batteries: Correct Potential Assessment, Applications and Practices
Reviewartikel, 2021

This review provides an accessible analysis of the processes on reference electrodes and their applications in Li-ion and next generation batteries research. It covers fundamentals and definitions as well as specific practical applications and is intended to be comprehensible for researchers in the battery field with diverse backgrounds. It covers fundamental concepts, such as two- and three-electrodes configurations, as well as more complex quasi- or pseudo- reference electrodes. The electrode potential and its dependance on the concentration of species and nature of solvents are explained in detail and supported by relevant examples. The solvent, in particular the cation solvation energy, contribution to the electrode potential is important and a largely unknown issue in most the battery research. This effect can be as high as half a volt for the Li/Li+ couple and we provide concrete examples of the battery systems where this effect must be taken into account. With this review, we aim to provide guidelines for the use and assessment of reference electrodes in the Li-ion and next generation batteries research that are comprehensive and accessible to an audience with a diverse scientific background.


Elif Ceylan Cengiz

Chalmers, Fysik, Materialfysik

Josef Rizell

Chalmers, Fysik, Materialfysik

Matthew Sadd

Chalmers, Fysik, Materialfysik

Aleksandar Matic

Chalmers, Fysik, Materialfysik

Nataliia Mozhzhukhina

Chalmers, Fysik, Materialfysik

Journal of the Electrochemical Society

0013-4651 (ISSN) 1945-7111 (eISSN)

Vol. 168 12 120539


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