A Comprehensive Techno-economic Solution for Demand Control in Ports: Energy Storage Systems Integration
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

The specific types of loads such as cranes, in particular, ship to shore (STS), rubber tyred gantry (RTG), rail mounted gantry (RMG) and cold ironing system in the ports present a distinctive load profile, due to their sudden peak load demand. To deal with the problem and avoid extra costs, it is possible to apply a delay time management to cranes operation and/or to implement energy storage systems (ESSs) to take benefit of regenerative energy. At this aim, the load profile characteristics require both energy storage with high power and energy densities and fast response time. Peak shaving can optimize the load demand and facilitate the participation of small power generation units based on renewable energy resources. In this regard, many approaches are introduced such as energy management strategies, modern technologies, and installing high-tech devices such as battery energy storage (BES), ultracapacitors (UCs), and flywheel energy storage (FES) acting as ESS. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to deal with an investigation for an integrated vision and a combination of ESSs application in the ports loads. Since the ports cannot persist to have independent and uncontrolled power systems, hence, the paper proposes the organization of their global design in a microgrid approach and the coordinated management for all the services such as cranes, reefers, col ironing, trucks, offices to increase the operation and energy performance. The statistical results show that the integration of ESSs can provide peak shaving, energy saving, and cost reduction in ports.

Hybrid Energy Storage System


Battery Energy Storage



Flywheel Energy Storage






Energy storage

Power demand


Mostafa Kermani

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik

Erfan Shirdare

Sapienza, Università di Roma

Giuseppe Parise

Sapienza, Università di Roma

Massimo Bongiorno

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik

Luigi Martirano

Sapienza, Università di Roma

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications

0093-9994 (ISSN)

Vol. 58 2 1592-1601



Marin teknik

Annan elektroteknik och elektronik



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