Size-resolved simulation of particulate matters and CO2 concentration in passenger vehicle cabins
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022
The main aim of this study is to develop a mathematical size-dependent vehicle cabin model for particulate matter concentration including PM2.5 (particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and UFPs (ultrafine particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 100 nm), as well as CO2 concentration. The ventilation airflow rate and cabin volume parameters are defined from a previously developed vehicle model for climate system design. The model simulates different filter statuses, application of pre-ionization, different airflow rates and recirculation degrees. Both particle mass and count concentration within 10–2530 nm are simulated. Parameters in the model are defined from either available component test data (for example filter efficiencies) or assumptions from corresponding studies (for example particle infiltration and deposition rates). To validate the model, road measurements of particle and CO2 concentrations outside two vehicles were used as model inputs. The simulated inside PM2.5, UFP and CO2 concentration were compared with the inside measurements. Generally, the simulation agrees well with measured data (Person’s r 0.89–0.92), and the simulation of aged filter with ionization is showing higher deviation than others. The simulation using medium airflows agrees better than the simulation using other airflows, both lower and higher. The reason for this may be that the filter efficiency data used in the model were obtained at airflows close to the medium airflow. When all size bins are compared, the sizes of 100–300 nm were slightly overestimated. The results indicated that among others, expanded filter efficiency data as a function of filter ageing and airflow rate would possibly enhance the simulation accuracy. An initial application sample study on recirculation degrees presents the model’s possible application in developing advanced climate control strategies.