Apertif: Phased array feeds for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope: System overview and performance characteristics
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

We describe the APERture Tile In Focus (Apertif) system, a phased array feed (PAF) upgrade of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that transforms this telescope into a high-sensitivity, wide-field-of-view L-band imaging and transient survey instrument. Using novel PAF technology, up to 40 partially overlapping beams are formed on the sky simultaneously, significantly increasing the survey speed of the telescope. With this upgraded instrument, an imaging survey covering an area of 2300 deg2 is being performed that will deliver both continuum and spectral line datasets, of which the first data have been publicly released. In addition, a time domain transient and pulsar survey covering 15 000 deg2 is in progress. An overview of the Apertif science drivers, hardware, and software of the upgraded telescope is presented, along with its key performance characteristics.

Surveys

Telescopes

Instrumentation: interferometers

Författare

W. van Cappellen

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

T. Oosterloo

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

M. A.W. Verheijen

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

E. A.K. Adams

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

B. Adebahr

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

R. Braun

SKA Organisation

K. M. Hess

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

H. Holties

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. M. van der Hulst

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

B. Hut

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

E. Kooistra

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. van Leeuwen

Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

G. M. Loose

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

R. Morganti

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

V. A. Moss

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)

The University of Sydney

E. Orrú

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Mark Ruiter

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A. P. Schoenmakers

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

N. Vermaas

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

S. J. Wijnholds

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A. S. Van Amesfoort

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

M. J. Arts

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. J. Attema

Netherlands eScience Center

L. Bakker

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

C. G. Bassa

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. E. Bast

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Pieter Benthem

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

R. Beukema

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

R. Blaauw

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

W.J.G. de Blok

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

University of Cape Town

M. Bouwhuis

National Institute for Subatomic Physics (NIKHEF)

R. H. Van Den Brink

Tricas Industrial Design & Engineering

L. Connor

Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

A. H.W.M. Coolen

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Sieds Damstra

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

G. van Diepen

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

R. De Goei

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

H. Dénes

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

M. Drost

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

N. Ebbendorf

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

B. S. Frank

University of the Western Cape

South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)

University of Cape Town

D. W. Gardenier

Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

M. Gerbers

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Y. G. Grange

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

T. Grit

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A.W. Gunst

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

N. Gupta

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics

Marianna Ivashina

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Kommunikation, Antenner och Optiska Nätverk, Antennsystem

G. I.G. Józsa

Universität Bonn

South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)

Rhodes University

G. H. Janssen

Radboud Universiteit

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A. Koster

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

G. H. Kruithof

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

S. J. Kuindersma

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A. M. Kutkin

Russian Academy of Sciences

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

D. M. Lucero

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Y. Maan

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

F. M. Maccagni

INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari

J. Van Der Marel

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Mika

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. Morawietz

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

H. Mulder

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

E. Mulder

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

M. J. Norden

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A. R. Offringa

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

L. C. Oostrum

Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Netherlands eScience Center

R. E. Overeem

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Z. Paragi

JOINT INSTITUTE FOR V.L.B.I. IN EUROPE (J.I.V.E.)

H. J. Pepping

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

E. Petroff

McGill University

Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy

D. J. Pisano

West Virginia University

A.G. Polatidis

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

P. Prasad

ASML Netherlands BV

J. P. de Reijer

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. W. Romein

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. Schaap

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

G. Schoonderbeek

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

R. Schulz

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

D. Van Der Schuur

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A. Sclocco

Netherlands eScience Center

J. Sluman

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

R. Smits

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

B. W. Stappers

University of Manchester

S. M. Straal

New York University Abu Dhabi

K. J.C. Stuurwold

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. Verstappen

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

D. Vohl

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

K. J. Wierenga

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

E. E.M. Woestenburg

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

A. W. Zanting

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

J. Ziemke

Universitetet i Oslo

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 658 A146

Ämneskategorier

Annan data- och informationsvetenskap

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Programvaruteknik

DOI

10.1051/0004-6361/202141739

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2022-03-11