Calprotectin levels in amniotic fluid in relation to intra-amniotic inflammation and infection in women with preterm labor with intact membranes: A retrospective cohort study
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

Objective: To evaluate the concentrations of calprotectin in amniotic fluid with respect to intra-amniotic inflammation and infection and to assess the presence or absence of bacteria in the amnio-chorionic niche with respect to presence or absence of intra-amniotic inflammation. Study design: Seventy-nine women with singleton pregnancies and preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL) were included in the study. Amniotic fluid was collected at the time of admission by amniocentesis and calprotectin levels were analyzed from frozen/thawed samples using ELISA. Interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was measured by point-of-care test. Samples from amniotic fluid and the amnio-chorionic niche (space between amniotic and chorionic membranes) were microbiologically analyzed. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) was diagnosed based on a positive PCR result for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, 16S rRNA or positive culture. Intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) was defined as amniotic fluid point-of-care IL-6 concentration ≥ 745 pg/mL. The cohort of included women was divided into 4 subgroups based on the presence or absence of IAI/MIAC; i) intra-amniotic infection, ii) sterile IAI, iii) intra-amniotic colonization and iv) neither MIAC nor IAI. Results: Women with intra-amniotic infection had a significantly higher intra-amniotic calprotectin concentration (median; 101.6 µg/mL) compared with women with sterile IAI (median; 9.2 µg/mL), women with intra-amniotic colonization (median; 2.6 µg/mL) and women with neither MIAC nor IAI (median 4.6 µg/mL) (p = 0.001). Moreover, significantly higher amniotic fluid calprotectin concentration was seen in women who delivered within 7 days (p = 0.003). A significant negative correlation was found between amniotic fluid calprotectin and gestational age at delivery (rho = 0.32, p = 0.003). Relatively more bacteria in the amnio-chorionic niche were found in the sterile IAI group compared with the other groups. Conclusions: Calprotectin concentrations in amniotic fluid were significantly higher in the intra-amniotic infection group compared with the other groups. Moreover, the bacterial presence in the amnio-chorionic niche was higher in IAI group.

Intra-amniotic infection


Intra-amniotic inflammation

Spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes



Nina Aberšek

Göteborgs universitet

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Panos Tsiartas

Karolinska Institutet

Göteborgs universitet

Daniel Jonsson

Göteborgs universitet

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Anna Grankvist

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Malin Barman

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Livsmedelsvetenskap

Maria Hallingström

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Göteborgs universitet

M. Kacerovsky

Univerzita Karlova

Fakultní nemocnice Hradec Králové

Bo Jacobsson

Göteborgs universitet

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology

0301-2115 (ISSN)

Vol. 272 24-29



Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området

Reproduktionsmedicin och gynekologi



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