Towards an electric scooter level of service: A review and framework
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

Although electric scooters (e-scooters) are gaining ground rapidly, research on analysing their users' experience lags far behind practice. Level of Service (LOS) is a promising approach to bridge the gap between research and practice via quantifying e-scooter riders' experience. We reviewed the state-of-the-art literature of e-scooters concerning their users' experience and proposed a preliminary framework for developing e-scooter LOS (SLOS). The findings suggest a lack of studies to evaluate SLOS, and e-scooters are rarely considered in the LOS estimation of other transport modes. Considering the impact of e-scooters in both modal substitute and supplement calls for unique SLOS indices in each scenario to reflect their user's experience realistically. Future studies should analyse the interaction of e-scooters with other road users, particularly pedestrians. This study highlights the importance of treating e-scooter as a distinct transport mode and contributes to matching policy and practice to integrate e-scooters into transport planning.

Sustainable mobility


Level of service



Electric scooter


Khashayar Kazemzadeh

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Fysisk resursteori

Frances Sprei

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Fysisk resursteori

Travel Behaviour and Society

2214-367X (ISSN)

Vol. 29 149-164


Transportteknik och logistik


Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning



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