cake_lpr: Verified Propagation Redundancy Checking in CakeML
Paper i proceeding, 2021

Modern SAT solvers can emit independently checkable proof certificates to validate their results. The state-of-the-art proof system that allows for compact proof certificates is propagation redundancy (PR). However, the only existing method to validate proofs in this system with a formally verified tool requires a transformation to a weaker proof system, which can result in a significant blowup in the size of the proof and increased proof validation time. This paper describes the first approach to formally verify PR proofs on a succinct representation; we present (i) a new Linear PR (LPR) proof format, (ii) a tool to efficiently convert PR proofs into LPR format, and (iii) cake_lpr, a verified LPR proof checker developed in CakeML. The LPR format is backwards compatible with the existing LRAT format, but extends the latter with support for the addition of PR clauses. Moreover, cake_lpr is verified using CakeML’s binary code extraction toolchain, which yields correctness guarantees for its machine code (binary) implementation. This further distinguishes our clausal proof checker from existing ones because unverified extraction and compilation tools are removed from its trusted computing base. We experimentally show that LPR provides efficiency gains over existing proof formats and that the strong correctness guarantees are obtained without significant sacrifice in the performance of the verified executable.

linear propagation redundancy

binary code extraction


Yong Kiam Tan

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

Marijn J. H. Heule

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

Magnus Myreen

Chalmers, Data- och informationsteknik, Formella metoder

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)

03029743 (ISSN) 16113349 (eISSN)

Vol. 12652 LNCS 223-241
978-3-030-72012-4 (ISBN)

Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS
Luxembourg City, Luxembourg,


Inbäddad systemteknik

Datavetenskap (datalogi)






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