Experimental Validation and Applications of a Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing Probe Model
Doktorsavhandling, 2023

New manufacturing technologies are developed to facilitate flexible product designs and production processes. However, the quality of the final products should not be compromised. The assessment of product quality and integrity lies on various inspection methods. Ultrasonic testing, among other nondestructive testing methods, is widely used as an effective and cost-efficient approach. The phased array technique in the field of ultrasonic testing shows more advantages over conventional technique and is revealing more benefits to industrial applications. To incorporate new technique into practice, it needs to be qualified with experiments. Due to the extensive costs and considerable challenges in experiments, the necessity of researching on reliable numerical models arises and several models had therefore been developed. The mathematical model implemented in the software, simSUNDT, developed at the Scientific Center of NDT (SCeNDT) at Chalmers University of Technology is one of these models for ultrasonic inspection. However, the validity of the models should be proved before supporting or replacing some of the experiments, which should ultimately be accomplished by experiments.

In this thesis, the main purpose is thus to further validate the phased array probe model in simSUNDT by comparing simulation with corresponding experiments. An experimental platform is built to fully control the operation conditions and the set of testing results. Well-defined and representative artificial defects in test specimens are manufactured and inspected under some inspection cases in both simulations and experiments. Comparisons in the end show good correlations.

Upon validation of the probe model, it is used in several application attempts for possible technique developments. This includes optimization of the generated sound field from a phased array probe and verifying the validity of the used log-normal probability of detection model. The basic ability of generating full matrix capture inspection dataset is also explored. This could provide a simulation scheme for parametric studies to investigate an ultrasonic imaging algorithm, total focusing method, in terms of its defect characterization capabilities.



Nondestructive testing (NDT)

Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT)


VDL, Chalmers Tvärgata 4C, Göteborg
Opponent: Gareth Pierce, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow UK (Zoom passcode: 029678)


Xiangyu Lei

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Konstruktionsmaterial

Experimental Validation of a Phased Array Probe Model in Ultrasonic Inspection

Ultrasonics,; Vol. 108(2020)

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Experimental Validation and Application of a Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing Model on Sound Field Optimization

Journal of Modern Physics,; Vol. 12(2021)p. 391-407

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Simulation-Based Investigation of a Probability of Detection (POD) Model Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) Technique

Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation,; Vol. 41(2022)

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Xiangyu Lei, Håkan Wirdelius, Johan Carlson. ”The effect of ultrasound wave path estimation to defect characterization capability in half-skip total focusing method”. Submitted to conference.

Xiangyu Lei, Håkan Wirdelius, Johan Carlson. ”Model-based parametric study of surface-breaking defect characterization using half-skip total focusing method”. Submitted to journal.

Computational aided engineering (CAE) has becoming more and more important and is widely used in various engineering fields. This is based on the vast development of computational capability of computers and research of predictive engineering mathematical models. Example of which includes finite element method (FEM), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) etc. The Scientific Center of Nondestructive Testing (SCeNDT) at Chalmers University of Technology have spent decades researching on mathematical model of ultrasonic testing (UT) in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT), and have implemented the model in software, simSUNDT. The aim of researching and developing these mathematical models is to help the designing processes as well as for better understanding of the physics. To be industrial relevant, the models should be applicable to practical issues and should reflect on real situations, for example the resulted structural response amplitudes should be acceptable and similar to the counterpart of a real corresponding structure. This is to say that the mathematical models should be verified and validated ultimately through comparison with reality.

This thesis work therefore focuses on further validation of the mathematical model in simSUNDT. More specifically, it is the newly implemented phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) probe model that have been further validated. The validation is progressed through comparing computed results with experiments under the same controlled ultrasonic inspection scenario. The comparisons show good correlations in general and the PAUT probe model is concluded as a good complement to experiments.

After validation, the probe model is applied in some research scenarios in the thesis. This again reveals one of the advantages of mathematical models in terms of technique development. The applications attempted in the thesis include parameter optimization of ultrasonic inspection, verification of a statistic model for quantifying detection capability, and parametric study of defect characterization capability using an advanced imaging algorithm.

In summary, this thesis contributes to a further step in mathematical model validation in ultrasonic nondestructive testing. It also explores several research and application possibilities. All these works in a broader view aim at completing the mathematical model and the software to be a useful and powerful tool for a sustainable market and future.

Adaptiv oförstörande provning vid additiv tillverkning

VINNOVA (2017-04856), 2017-11-10 -- 2020-06-30.


Annan maskinteknik

Tillförlitlighets- och kvalitetsteknik






Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie: 5184



VDL, Chalmers Tvärgata 4C, Göteborg


Opponent: Gareth Pierce, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow UK (Zoom passcode: 029678)

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat