Vehicle cabin air quality – influence of air recirculation on energy use, particles and CO2
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2023

In this study simulations were performed to investigate the influence of different vehicle climate ventilation strategies, mainly the air recirculation (REC) degree, on the cabin air quality and climate system power. The focus of air quality is on the cabin particle concentrations including PM2.5 (particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm), UFP (ultrafine particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 100 nm), and cabin CO2 concentration. Three outside climates (cold, intermediate, and warm) and three outside particle concentrations are studied. The studied vehicle originally shows possibilities to meet WHO PM2.5 guideline of 15 μg/m3 with a new filter. The aged filter have reduced performance, especially when outside concentration is high.

Increased REC shows advantages in all the three climates in reducing particles and climate power for the studied vehicle. Application of 70% REC (70% of ventilation air is recirculated air) on average lowers PM2.5 by 55% and 39% for a new and aged filter respectively. 70% REC with a new filter reduces cabin PM2.5 below guideline of 15 μg/m3 in all conditions. The reduction of UFP counts results are generally similar to that of PM2.5. Increased REC also lessens the average climate system power by up to 27 % on average.

When REC is increased, the cabin CO2 concentration arise accordingly, and the magnitude is relevant to the passengers. In all studied conditions with 1 passenger, 70% REC does not increase CO2 above the common guideline of 1000 ppm. 70% REC is not recommended with more than 1 passengers in cold and intermediate climate, and 2 passengers in warm climate. Besides, to avoid the potential windscreen fog risk in cold climate, REC should be avoided when passengers are more than 3.

Except for constant REC values, a sample study investigates a dynamic control of the REC. It shows the possibility of continuously optimizing REC to reduce the climate power and particles, while maintaining the CO2 concentration below 1000 ppm. In warm climate with 1 passenger boarded, the average optimized REC is 90%, which in comparison with base case lead to 44% PM2.5 reduction and 12% climate power reduction.









Dixin Wei

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Installationsteknik

Filip Nielsen

Energi och miljö

Hannes Karlsson

Volvo Cars

Lars Ekberg

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Installationsteknik

Jan-Olof Dalenbäck

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Installationsteknik

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

0944-1344 (ISSN)

Vol. In press







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