To sea, or not to sea, that is the question: Evaluating eye-tracking as didactical support and facilitator of tacit knowledge transfer in simulator-based maritime pilot training
Paper i proceeding, 2024

Maritime pilots provide navigational guidance along specific waterways, relying on knowledge that can be challenging to articulate and transfer. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of eye-tracking as a didactic tool and to determine its potential for evaluating the transfer of tacit knowledge in simulator-based maritime pilot training. Utilising an exploratory mixed-method design, maritime pilots, instructors, and train-ees (n=57) participated in four sub-studies conducted in simulator environments. The results indicate that the incorporation of eye-tracking improved the didactic quality of briefings and facilitated a shared and objective perception of events. Additionally, it revealed strategies that could be used as a foundation for reflective learning. The pilot training primarily focused on controlled navigation, ship handling, and hydrodynamics. However, these topics mainly encompass general nautical skills rather than specific skills required for piloting. While certain aspects of specific pilot skill training, such as interactions with the crew of piloted ships, tugboats, or Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), are included in the maritime pilot training program, it remains unclear whether these skills are acquired through tacit knowledge transfer or through the development of muscle memory combined with pattern recognition. This ambiguity could not be resolved using eye-tracking alone. Furthermore, further investigation is necessary to understand the relationships between eye movements, cognitive processes, tacit knowledge transfer, and learning outcomes.

knowledge transfer

maritime pilot training

maritime pilot

maritime simulator


tacit knowledge


Rikard Eklund

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Design & Human Factors

Anna-Lisa Osvalder

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Design & Human Factors

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

10711813 (ISSN)

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2024 Annual Conference.
Luybeck , Germany,

Utvärdering av eye-tracking som utbildningsstöd vid simulatorförlagd lotsutbildning

Trafikverket (TRV2019/117837), 2020-10-01 -- 2022-12-31.



Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi


Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)


Informations- och kommunikationsteknik


Hållbar utveckling

Lärande och undervisning

Pedagogiskt arbete

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