The role of retained austenite on the formation of the nanostructured hard-turned induced white layer in AISI 52100 bearing steel
Paper i proceeding, 2024

Interest in hard-turning is steadily increasing due to its obvious benefits in terms of desirable surface integrity and improved operational efficiency. Surface microstructural variations can occur during machining due to cutting speed, tool geometry, and process conditions. These variations create nanostructured white layers (WL), categorized as mechanically induced white layers (M-WL) or thermally induced white layers (T-WL). This study explored the role of retained austenite (RA) content (<2%, 12%, and 25%) on WL generation in AISI 52100 bearing steel, offering insights for optimizing hard-turning. The findings showed that, regardless of RA content, samples exhibited M-WL with no dark layer beneath the white layer when utilizing a cutting speed (VC) of 60m/min using a fresh insert. Increasing tool flank wear to 0.2mm led to the formation of T-WL and surface tensile residual stresses in specimens with higher RA content (12% and 25%). This effect was also observed at 260m/min with a fresh cutting insert. Machining at 260m/min with a worn tool (VB) of 0.2mm resulted in T-WL and surface tensile residual stresses, independent of RA content. Additionally, a 0.2mm tool wear caused a significant shift in the maximum subsurface compressive residual stresses to greater depths, irrespective of RA content.

Retained austenite

White layers

Nanostructured materials

Hard turning

Tool wear


Sahith Kokkirala

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Material och tillverkning

Karim Osman

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Jonas Holmberg

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Stefan Kimming


Hirotsugu Iwasaki

SUMITOMO Electric Hartmetall GmbH

Uta Klement

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Material och tillverkning

Seyed Hosseini

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Procedia CIRP

22128271 (ISSN)

Vol. 123 292-297

7th CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity, CSI
Bremen, Germany,

Flexibel och hållbar tillverkning av högpresterande rullningslager

VINNOVA (2021-01274), 2021-06-16 -- 2024-03-31.


Hållbar utveckling


Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik

Metallurgi och metalliska material





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