Hydrolyzable Nonionic Surfactants; Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Surfactants Containing Carbonate, Ester and Amide Bonds
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2005
A linear and a branched nonionic cleavable surfactants containing a carbonate bond have been prepared from tetra(ethylene glycol) and an alkylchloroformate. The stability of these carbonate surfactants was determined by investigating their hydrolysis and biodegradability characteristics. The hydrolysis was catalyzed by alkali or enzymes (esterase from porcine liver and lipases from Mucor miehei and Candida antarctica B) and was monitored using 1 H NMR. It was found that the stability toward alkali was higher for a carbonate surfactant than for a corresponding surfactant with an ester as weak bond. Biodegradation tests resulted in more than 60% degradation after 28 days for both carbonate surfactants. Physicochemical properties, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), cloud point, area per molecule, and surface tension at the CMC, were determined and compared to those obtained from similar surfactants containing ester, amide, or ether bonds. It was found that the carbonate linkage is hydrophobic and that the oxycarbonyl part of the carbonate group is equivalent, in a formal sense, to an extra methylene group in the alkyl chain of the surfactant. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.