Development and Evaluation of the ES-2 Dummy
Over the last year, the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee Working Group 12 has assessed and reviewed the performance of the enhanced anthropomorphic test device for lateral impacts, EUROSID-2 (ES-2). The objectives for this work have been the following:
- To verify whether the proposed design is addressing the shortcomings of the regulatory test device EUROSID-1 as identified previously by EEVC and NHTSA
- To make sure that the original EUROSID-1 biofidelity and performance in normal test conditions is preserved.
- To reach a well-balanced conclusion, the working group has undertaken a test program to assess the most important requirements for the ES-2 dummy, biofidelity, sensitivity, repeatability, handling, durability, certification and full-scale performance in comparison with EUROSID-1.
In addition, but no less important, the working group has reviewed and explored the findings of full-scale tests conducted at several member organisations within ACEA. ACEA has reported the most important findings in September 2000. Subsequently, WG 12 has further investigated the issues raised in this report. On the basis of this work, the working group has concluded the following with regards to the ES-2 specifications and performance:
The ES-2 prototype as tested is superior to current test device EUROSID-1 and, hence, a more appropriate test device for regulatory testing. The important shortcomings of the EUROSID-1 have been satisfactorily addressed with ES-2, whilst biofidelity is maintained, in some areas even somewhat improved. It should be noted, however, that the assessment of thorax biofidelity was based on deflection and force-time data only, and does not incorporate an assessment of V*C. It is recommended to adopt the hardware design without further modification and to use the new proposed certification procedures, with the exception of the high velocity pelvis test.
Overall test results in full-scale tests have shown that some critical dummy measurement values for ES-2 have increased compared to EUROSID-1, in particular rib deflection, 17%, and V*C, 23%1 on average. Other values on the other hand have brought down such as the pubic force (10%) due to improved leg interaction. Contrary to the full-scale results, the ES-2 gave equal or lower values for all critical measurements in the biofidelity tests.
For the large majority of vehicles tested, the different results would not affect pass or fail with respect to current regulatory limits. It should be noted, however, that, maintaining the rating levels in consumer testing, ES-2 results would lead motoring consumers to believe the protection offered in side impact has decreased while in fact the safety performance of these vehicles has not changed.
A force transducer has been developed to measure the force applied to the back plate. It is recommended to use the force transducer in full vehicle assessment.
Finally, the working group believes the ES-2 dummy forms a solid basis for interim harmonisation and will further support activities to help realise this objective.