Frequency reserves and inertia in the transition to future electricity systems
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2023

The transition towards an electricity system that is dominated by asynchronous and non-dispatchable generators, such as wind and solar power, entails challenges related to balancing the load and, thereby, keeping the grid frequency stable. Many technologies can contribute to load balancing and frequency control. This study investigates the interactions between electricity generation and frequency control in terms of investments and operation, using cost-minimizing, linear optimization modeling. The model is applied in three different geographic cases and for four future time-points, starting off with the already existing transmission and generation capacities, so as to yield insights into different systems and different stages along the energy transition. The results show that frequency control constraints in the optimization model have a weak impact on the system composition and cost, and that batteries are important for minimizing the impact. Furthermore, inertia requirements without a reserve demand show no impact on the cost or system composition. When allowing for vehicle-to-grid from battery electric vehicles, a large proportion of stationary grid battery investments is displaced, and the impact on system cost from adding frequency control constraints is removed.

Generation expansion planning


Synthetic inertia

Frequency reserves

Energy system modeling

Frequency control


Jonathan Ullmark

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Energiteknik

Lisa Göransson

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Energiteknik

Filip Johnsson

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Energiteknik

Energy Systems

1868-3967 (ISSN) 1868-3975 (eISSN)

Vol. In Press


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