Locally Functionalized Short-Range Ordered Nanoplasmonic Pores for Bioanalytical Sensing
Journal article, 2010
Nanoplasmonic sensors based on short-range ordered nano-holes in thin metal films and discrete metal nanoparticles are known to provide similar sensing performance. However, a perforated metal film is unique in the sense that the holes can be designed to penetrate through the substrate, thereby also fulfilling the role of nanofluidic channels. This paper presents a bioanalytical sensing concept based on short-range ordered nanoplasmonic pores (diameter 150 nm) penetrating through a thin (around 250 nm) multilayer membrane composed of gold and silicon nitride (SiN) that is Supported on a Si wafer. Also, a fabrication scheme that enables parallel production of multiple (more than 50) separate sensor chips or more than 1000 separate nanoplasmonic membranes on it single wafer is presented. Together with the localization of the sensitivity to within such short-range ordered nanoholes, the structure provides it two-dimensional nanofluidic network, sized in the order of 100 x 100 mu m(2), with nanoplasmon active regions localized to each individual nanochannel. A material-specific surface-modification scheme was developed to promote specific binding of target molecules on the optically active gold regions only, while suppressing nonspecific adsorption on SiN. Using this protocol, and by monitoring the temporal variation in the plasmon resonance of the structure, we demonstrate flow-through nanoplasmonic sensing of specific biorecognition reactions with a signal-to-noise ratio of around 50 at a temporal resolution below 190 ms. With flow, the uptake was demonstrated to be at least 1 order of magnitude faster than under stagnant conditions, while still keeping the sample consumption at a minimum.