Applicability of in vitro models in prediciting the in vivo bioavailability of lycopene and beta-carotene from differently processed soups
Journal article, 2012
Presently, there is no clear consensus on the best approach to estimate carotenoid bioavailability. The best alternative would be to use human studies, but they are labour-intensive and expensive and can only be used to investigate a lim-ited number of samples. Hence, a number of in vitro models have been developed to study pre-absorptive processes and factors affecting bioavailability. The question is, however, how well the results obtained by the various methods correlate to each other and to the in vivo situation. In the present paper, we have compared in vivo data from two human studies on differently processed soups containing carrots, tomato and broccoli, with results obtained by in vitro characterisation of the same soups. In vitro bioaccessibility was estimated by a static in vitro digestion investigating matrix release and micellarization of carotenoids and by uptake studies in a human intestinal cell line (Caco-2). In vivo data was obtained from clinical studies measuring total plasma carotenoid concentrations in human subjects after 4 weeks daily consumption of the soups. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the combination of a two-step in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cells seems to be a useful tool for estimation of β-carotene bioaccessibility and screening of factors governing the release of β-carotene from this type of food. For lycopene the in vitro and in vivo results were less consistent, suggesting that reliable prediction of lycopene bioavailability might be more problematic.
In vitro digestion