Anthropometric Specifications, Development, and Evaluation of EvaRID-A 50th Percentile Female Rear Impact Finite Element Dummy Model
Journal article, 2014
Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), or ‘whiplash injuries’, due to low severity vehicle crashes are of great concern in motorised countries and it is well established that the risk of such injuries is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Recent protective systems have been shown to be more beneficial for males than for females. Hence there is a need for improved tools to address female WAD prevention when developing and evaluating the performance of whiplash protection systems. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash test dummy.
The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on literature data. The model, called EvaRID (Eva - female/RID - Rear Impact Dummy), was based on the same design concept as the existing 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to female volunteer data from rear impact sled tests.
The EvaRID V1.0 model and the volunteer tests compared well until 250 ms of the head and T1 forward accelerations and rearward linear displacements, and of the head rearward angular displacement. Markedly less T1 rearward angular displacement was found for the EvaRID model compared to the female volunteers. Similar results were received for the BioRID II model when comparing simulated responses with experimental data under volunteer loading conditions. The results indicate that the biofidelity of the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II FE models have limitations, predominantly in the T1 rearward angular displacement, at low velocity changes (7 km/h). The BioRID II model was validated against dummy test results in a loading range close to consumer test conditions (EuroNCAP) and lower severity levels of volunteer testing were not considered.
The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems. However, updates of the joint stiffness will be required to provide better correlation at lower load levels. Moreover, the seated posture, curvature of the spine and head position of 50th percentile female occupants needs to be established and implemented in future models.