Opportunities for process integrated evaporation in kraft pulp mills
Paper in proceedings, 2000
This paper discusses how medium high temperature excess heat made available through process integration can be used for evaporation of black liquor and different types of wastewater. The amount of medium high temperature excess heat varies considerably in different mills, and apart from a reference mill two other mills are simulated-one that uses a new dryer combined with non-conventional evaporation design and one minimum effluent pulp mill. Several new evaporation plant designs are technically and economically analyzed. The total number of evaporators, amount and temperature of black liquor and wastewater to be evaporated, as well as temperature and amount of excess heat available are varied. The economic value of the total energy savings due to the new evaporation design is shown, and the investment opportunity to make different amounts of excess heat available is stated. This work shows that the total live steam demand for today's and future kraft pulp mills can be reduced by at least 20% with a non-conventional evaporation design. The results also show that there is a relatively large investment opportunity to make excess heat available for evaporation.