Herring and beef meals lead to differences in plasma 2-aminoaidipic acid, β-alanine, 4-hydroxyproline, cetoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in overweight men
Journal article, 2015
Background: Dietary guidelines generally recommend increasing fish intake and reducing red meat intake for better long-term health. Few studies have compared the metabolic differences between eating meat and fish.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the postprandial plasma metabolic response to meals containing baked beef, baked herring, and pickled herring.
Methods: Seventeen overweight men (BMI 25-30 kg/m(2), 41-67 y of age) were included in a randomized crossover intervention study. Subjects ate baked herring, pickled herring, and baked beef based meals in a randomized order and postprandial blood plasma samples were taken over 7 h. Plasma metabolomics were measured with the use of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and areas under the curve for detected metabolites were compared between meals.
Results: The plasma postprandial response of 2-aminoadipic acid, a suggested marker of diabetes risk, was 1.6 times higher after the beef meal than after the baked herring meal (P < 0.001). Plasma p-alanine and 4-hydroxyproline both were markedly greater after beef intake than after herring intake (16 and 3.4 times the response of baked herring, respectively; P < 0.001). Herring intake led to a greater plasma postprandial response from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cetoleic acid compared with beef (17.6 and 150 times greater, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas hippuric acid and benzoic acid were elevated after pickled herring compared with baked herring (5.4 and 43 times higher; P < 0.001).
Conclusions: These results in overweight men confirm that DHA and cetoleic acid reflect herring intake, whereas p-alanine and 4-hydroxyproline are potential biomarkers for beef intake. The greater postprandial rise in 2-aminoadipic acid after the beef meal, coupled to its proposed role in stimulating insulin secretion, may have importance in the context of red meat intake and increased diabetes risk.