Multidimensional Hybridization of Dark Surface Plasmons
Journal article, 2017
Synthetic three-dimensional (3D) nanoarchitectures are providing more control over light matter interactions and rapidly progressing photonic-based technology. These applications often utilize the strong synergy between electromagnetic fields and surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic. nanostructures. However, many of the SP interactions hosted by complex 3D nanostructures are poorly understood because they involve dark hybridized states that are typically undetectable with far-field optical spectroscopy. Here, we use experimental and theoretical electron energy loss spectroscopy to elucidate dark SPs and their interactions in layered metal-insulator-metal disc nanostructures. We go beyond the established dipole SP hybridization analysis by, measuring breathing and multipolar SP hybridization. In addition, we reveal multidimensional SP hybridization that simultaneously utilizes in-plane and out-of-plane SP coupling. Near-field classic electrodynamics calculations provide excellent agreement with all experiments. These results advance the fundamental understanding of SP hybridization in 3D nanostructures and provide avenues to further tune the interaction between electromagnetic fields and matter.
electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS)