Spacial and dynamic energy demand of the E39 highway – Implications on electrification options
Journal article, 2017
The aims of this study were to investigate how the energy demand from transportation on a road varies over time and with location, and to identify the impacts from electrification of the road on the stationary electricity system, assuming different electrification options and drivetrains. European highway route 39 (E39) in western Norway is used as a case study. A vehicle model, together with an analysis of detailed traffic data was used to estimate the energy and power demands for transportation work on E39. This study shows that a road with the characteristics of E39 exhibits large variation in the spatial and time distributions of its energy and power demands. The yearly electricity demand for E39, assuming a full electrification of the current traffic flow is comparable to that of a larger industry, such that the peak power demand for the dimensioning hour of the regional electricity system could be increased by 1–2% if static or electric road systems is applied. However, if all the main roads in Norway were installed with electric road systems, the corresponding peak power increase is 7%. In comparison, if instead using an indirect strategy for electrification of transportation via for instance hydrogen or synthetic diesel, the annual electricity demand for E39 would increase even further, albeit with the possibility to distribute such demand both geographically area and in time compared to electric road systems or static charging.