Discharges to the sea
Book chapter, 2016
In this chapter, various environmental issues from the shipping industry which ends up in the oceans are described. Oil pollution, wastewater, antifouling paint, ballast water and litter are all described in detail. Various sources of oil pollution exist, ranging from large accidents to small continuous leakages from, e.g., propeller shaft bearings. The behaviour of oil when it enters the sea can differ, ultimately affecting the environment. Wastewater from ships is divided into sewage and grey water, and different regulations can affect their characteristics. Fouling on ship hulls affects the drag on the ship, which increases fuel consumption when maintaining a constant speed. The various antifouling paints used today to combat fouling are described herein, and a review of the environmental implications of using these paints is provided. Ballast water contains organisms that can become invasive if released into a new geographical area. Invasive species can entail costs on the order of millions of euros. Finally, litter is discussed in this chapter. Litter is deposited in the ocean via several sources and can affect organisms over long periods of time. Plastic causes the largest litter-related problem because it does not biodegrade; such material only becomes smaller, ultimately reaching a microplastic state. Henee, litter can affect organisms in different ways.