Difference in Female and Male Whiplash Injury Risk – Indications from Seat Testing and From Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Nerve Injury Mechanisms
Paper in proceedings, 2016
Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) is still one of the most poorly understood traffic injuries.
Cervical dorsal root ganglion lesion is a potential cause of WAD. This short communication covers factors
that potentially contribute to the difference in WAD risk between female and male car occupants in rear
A prototype female rear impact dummy and the male BioRID II dummy were used. In parallel a 3D model
of the ganglion and the intervertebral bridging veins was developed in CFD software. The T1 x-acceleration
was mostly higher in the female dummy, coinciding with the time of strongest pressure magnitudes.
Car seats interacted differently with the female compared the male dummy. Increased early T1
acceleration of the female indicates a stronger pressure magnitude in the vertebral canal. Increased pressures
were also found with more female-like neck joint properties.
The results points to the need to complete