X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of indium tin oxide nanocrystalline powder
Journal article, 2005
Indium tin oxide films and coatings are widely used and can be produced by different techniques including dip and spin-coating of suspensions of nano-particles. To achieve high quality films the nano-powder has to be fully characterized. Hence, three co-precipitated nanocrystalline indium tin oxide powders of different particle size were investigated by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analysis indicated that indium and tin are in oxide state, i.e. no metallic component could be observed. In addition, measurements by use of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were performed. They showed that indium tin oxide primary particles are slightly elliptical and facetted in shape, respectively. The powders have a body center cubic lattice type and the lattice parameter is 1.01 nm. Measured by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray, the tin content was determined to be 5-6 at.%.
bulk chemical composition