In situ release rates of Cu and Zn from commercial antifouling paints at different salinities
Journal article, 2018

Antifouling paints are environmentally risk assessed based on their biocidal release rates to the water phase. In situ release rates of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were derived for five commercial paints in two recreational marinas with different salinities (5 and 14 PSU) using an X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Salinity was found to significantly affect the Cu release, with twice the amount of Cu released at the higher salinity, while its influence on the Zn release was paint-specific. Site-specific release rates for water bodies with salinity gradients, e.g. the Baltic Sea, are therefore necessary for more realistic risk assessments of antifouling paints. Furthermore, the in situ release rates were up to 8 times higher than those generated using standardized laboratory or calculation methods. The environmental risk assessment repeated with the field release rates concludes that it is questionable whether the studied products should be allowed on the Swedish market.

Environmental risk assessment


Antifouling paint




Maria Lagerström

Stockholm University

Fredrik Lindgren

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Albin Holmqvist

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Mia Dahlström

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Erik Ytreberg

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Maritime Studies

Marine Pollution Bulletin

0025-326X (ISSN) 1879-3363 (eISSN)

Vol. 127 289-296

Subject Categories

Water Engineering

Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources

Environmental Sciences



More information

Latest update