Effect of ship hull form on the resistance penalty from biofouling
Journal article, 2018

Hull biofouling is a well-known problem for the shipping industry, leading to increased resistance and fuel consumption. Considering that the effects of hull form on resistance are known to be higher for a less slender hull, it is hypothesised in this paper that the effect of biofouling roughness on resistance is also dependent on the hull form. To test this hypothesis, previously reported full-scale numerical results on a containership are re-analysed. Form effects on roughness penalties, corresponding to KΔCT = 0.058 ± 0.025, are observed at a low speed (19 knots, Res = 2.29 × 109), which are however cancelled out by traditionally neglected roughness effects on wave-making resistance at a higher speed (24 knots, Res = 2.89 × 109). It is concluded that hull form effects on biofouling penalties can be significant at low speeds, though not generalisable for higher speeds, namely when wave-making resistance corresponds to ≥ 29% of total resistance.

Turbulent boundary layer

ship resistance


hull form factor

frictional resistance


Dinis Oliveira

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Maritime Studies

Ann I. Larsson

University of Gothenburg

Lena Granhag

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Maritime Studies


0892-7014 (ISSN) 1029-2454 (eISSN)

Vol. 34 3 262-272

Increased energy efficiency in ships through reduced hull fouling

Swedish Energy Agency (39512-1), 2015-01-01 -- 2017-06-30.

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