Chemical-Looping Combustion of Kerosene and Gaseous Fuels with a Natural and a Manufactured Mn–Fe-Based Oxygen Carrier
Journal article, 2018
Two different oxygen-carrier materials with similar molar ratios of Mn:Fe:Al were tested in continuous chemical-looping combustion operation with different fuels, i.e., syngas (H2/CO), methane, and kerosene. One oxygen carrier was manufactured by spray drying, and the other one was a naturally occurring ore that was crushed. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, chemical-looping combustion reactor with continuous fuel addition and continuous circulation of oxygen-carrier particles. In fresh state, i.e., before fuel operation, both materials showed clear CLOU properties. In used state, i.e., after fuel operation, the CLOU properties of the manufactured oxygen carrier were slightly higher than before, whereas those of the natural material decreased significantly. Operation with fuel was conducted for a total of about 47 h between 850 and 950 °C, and clear differences in fuel conversion were observed. At similar oxygen-carrier-to-fuel ratios and temperatures, the manganese ore achieved a clearly higher methane conversion, whereas the manufactured material achieved a higher conversion of H2 and CO. Near-complete conversion of syngas, i.e., >99%, was reached with both materials tested. Particle circulation was indirectly measured and used to estimate solids conversion during continuous operation. The materials were characterized with ICP-SFMS, XRD, and SEM/EDX, and rate indices were calculated based on data obtained in TGA tests with different reactants. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were made and used to interpret results from oxygen release and TGA tests. Attrition indices and material porosity were determined for fresh and used samples of the materials used. The manganese ore exhibited a clearly lower structural integrity during redox operation compared to the manufactured material. However, the cost of producing an oxygen carrier from an ore is significantly lower than manufacturing an oxygen carrier by spray drying.
Fluidized Bed Conversion
Chemical-looping combustion (CLC)
Oxygen carrier materials