New alkylresorcinol metabolites in spot urine as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake in a Swedish middle-aged population
Journal article, 2018

Background/objectives: Studies on the health effects of whole grains typically use self-reported intakes which are prone to large measurement errors. Dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake are needed. New alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA)) in 24 h urine samples have been suggested as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake but remain to be evaluated in spot urine samples. Subjects/methods: The reproducibility of the new AR metabolites (DHCA, DHBA-glycine and DHPPTA) was investigated in 4 repeated samples over a period of 2 wk in spot urine from 40 Swedish men and women enroled in the SCAPIS-study, after adjustment of creatinine. Metabolite concentrations were correlated with total whole grain intake estimated during the same period. Results: The medium-term reproducibility determined for DHCA, DHPPTA and DHBA-glycine varied from moderate to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.35–0.67). Moreover, DHCA and DHBA-glycine were independently associated with self-reported total WG intake (β = 0.18, P = 0.08 and β = 0.18, P = 0.02, respectively) and all metabolites except for DHPPA were higher among women. Conclusions: This study supports the idea of using AR metabolites in one or several spot urine samples as biomarkers of whole grain intake. These findings need to be confirmed in different populations.


2 (3



5 dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid

biological marker

5 (3

unclassified drug


5 dihydroxyphenyl)pentanoic acid

5 dihydroxycinnamic acid

resorcinol derivative


Rikard Landberg

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Karolinska Institutet

Roksana Wierzbicka

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Lin Shi

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

S Nybacka

University of Gothenburg

A. Kamal-Eldin

United Arab Emirates University

B. Hedblad

Lund University

A.K. Lindroos

National food agency, Sweden

Anna Winkvist

University of Gothenburg

H. B. Forslund

University of Gothenburg

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

0954-3007 (ISSN) 14765640 (eISSN)

Vol. 72 10 1439-1446

Subject Categories

Food Science

Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Nutrition and Dietetics





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