Anti-biofilm effects of gold and silver nanoparticles synthesized by the Rhodiola rosea rhizome extracts
Journal article, 2018
Bacterial biofilm represents a major problem in medicine. They colonize and damage medical devices and implants and, in many cases, foster development of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Biofilm development starts by bacterial attachment to the surface and the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS forms a structural scaffold for dividing bacterial cells. The EPS layers also play a protective role, preventing the access of antibiotics to biofilm-associated microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the production nanoparticles that could be used to inhibit biofilm formation. The applied production procedure from rhizome extracts of Rhodiola rosea is simple and environmentally friendly, as it requires no additional reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. The produced nanoparticles were stable and crystalline in nature with an average diameter of 13–17 nm for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and 15–30 nm for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis revealed the concentration of synthesized nanoparticles as 3.3 and 5.3 mg/ml for AuNPs and AgNPs, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy detected the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and phenols on the nanoparticle surface, which could be responsible for reducing the Au and Ag salts to nanoparticles and further stabilizing them. Furthermore, we explored the AgNPs for inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli biofilms. AgNPs exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of 50 and 100 µg/ml, against P. aeruginosa and E. coli, respectively. The respective minimum bactericidal concentrations were 100 and 200 µg/ml. These results suggest that using the rhizome extracts of the medicinal plant R. rosea represents a viable route for green production of nanoparticles with anti-biofilm effects.