Consumption of whole grain/bran rye instead of refined wheat decrease concentrations of TNF-R2, e-selectin, and endostatin in an exploratory study in men with prostate cancer
Introductory text in journal, 2019

Background & aims: Rye consumption has shown beneficial effects on prostate cancer tumors, as indicated by slower initial tumor growth in animal models and lowering of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in humans. This study evaluated the effects of whole grain/bran rye consumption on low-grade inflammation and endothelial function biomarkers in men with prostate cancer. Methods: Seventeen men with untreated, low-grade prostate cancer consumed 485 g rye whole grain and bran products (RP) per day or refined wheat products with added cellulose (WP) in a randomized crossover design. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment. Results: Concentrations of tumor nuclear factor-receptor 2 (TNF-R2), e-selectin, and endostatin were significantly lower after consumption of the RP diet compared with WP (p < 0.05). Cathepsin S concentration was positively correlated to TNF-R2 and endostatin concentrations across all occasions. Strong correlations were consistently found between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). No effect of intervention was found in 92 inflammation-related protein biomarkers measured in a proximity extension assay. Conclusions: RP diet lowered TNF-R2, e-selectin, and endostatin, compared with WP in men with prostate cancer. These effects were accompanied by a reduction in PSA.

Whole grain/bran rye

Prostate cancer


Endothelial function markers

Low-grade inflammatory markers

Refined wheat


Galia Zamaratskaia

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Nor Adila Mhd Omar

Karolinska Institutet

Carl Brunius

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Göran Hallmans

Umeå University

Jan Erik Johansson

Örebro University

Sven Olof Andersson

Örebro University

Anders Larsson

Akademiska Sjukhuset

Per Åman

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Rikard Landberg

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Karolinska Institutet

Umeå University

Clinical Nutrition

0261-5614 (ISSN)

Vol. In press

Subject Categories

Urology and Nephrology

Medicinal Chemistry

Cancer and Oncology



More information

Latest update