Ramie fabric EliumĀ® composites with flame retardant coating: Flammability, smoke, viscoelastic and mechanical properties
Journal article, 2020

This investigation studied the utilization of intumescent thermal resistive mats to provide surface protection to the core natural fibre-reinforced EliumĀ® composite structural integrity. The intumescent mats contained flame retardant (FR) i.e. expandable graphite (EG) with four different expansion ratios and alumina trihydrate (ATH). All natural fibre thermoplastic composites were fabricated using a resin infusion technique. The impact of char thickness and chemical compositions on the flammability and smoke properties was investigated. It was found that surface protection significantly reduced the peak heat release rate, total smoke release, smoke extinction area and CO2 yield, and substantially enhanced UL-94 rating, time to ignition and residual char network, depending on the EG exfoliation ratio, ATH and mineral wool fibre. The glass transition temperature increased for the FR composites containing EG with lower expansion ratio. Inclusion of intumescent mats increased the strength of the composites while it had a negative effect on the modulus.


Natural fibres

Thermoplastic resin

Vacuum infusion


Pooria Khalili

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Material and Computational Mechanics

Brina Blinzler

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Material and Computational Mechanics

Roland Kádár

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Engineering Materials

Per Blomqvist

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Anna M Sandinge

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Roeland Bisschop

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Xiaoling Liu

University of Nottingham Ningbo China

Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing

1359-835X (ISSN)

Vol. 137 105986

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance


Materials Science

Subject Categories

Materials Chemistry

Other Materials Engineering

Composite Science and Engineering


Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory



More information

Latest update