Vanadium recovery from steel converter slag utilised as an oxygen carrier in oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC)
Journal article, 2021

This study investigates vanadium extraction from steel converter slag from the LD (Linz-Donawitz) process. This slag has been used as an active bed material in a biomass boiler in a combustion technique called oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC). This usage in the boiler could be compared to the roasting step in the common roasting-leaching method for vanadium extraction. Leaching of LD slag prior to use as an oxygen carrier is undesirable as the materials active in OCAC are removed. This study successfully leached the slag following use in the combustion process. Two methods of leaching were utilised to compare the OCAC slag against traditional methods of vanadium extraction; a continuous flow leaching procedure and a microwave-assisted leaching procedure. It was found that a vanadium extraction efficiency of 22.1% could be achieved from the OCAC slag using 5 M sulphuric acid as a leaching solution following 30 min water leaching followed by 30 min of continuous acid leaching. Using the microwave-assisted method and further optimising leaching conditions, a final efficiency of 49.1% was achieved with 4 M sulphuric acid and particle size within the range of 44–74 μm.

Microwave-assisted leaching

Vanadium leaching

Steel converter slags

Oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC)

Continuous flow leaching


Martin Attah

University of Strathclyde

Fredrik Hildor

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Energy and Material

Duygu Yilmaz

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Energy and Material

Henrik Leion

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Energy and Material

Journal of Cleaner Production

0959-6526 (ISSN)

Vol. 293 126159

Subject Categories

Analytical Chemistry

Chemical Process Engineering

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials


Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory



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