Towards safe human robot collaboration - Risk assessment of intelligent automation
Paper in proceeding, 2020

Automation and robotics are two enablers for developing the Smart Factory of the Future, which is based on intelligent machines and collaboration between robots and humans. Especially in final assembly and its material handling, where traditional automation is challenging to use, collaborative robot (cobot) systems may increase the flexibility needed infuture production systems. A major obstacle to deploy a truly collaborative application is to design and implement a safe and efficient interaction between humans and robot systems while maintaining industrial requirements such as cost and productivity. Advanced and intelligent control strategies is the enabler when creating this safe, yet efficient, system, but is often hard to design and build.

This paper highlights and discusses the challenges in meeting safety requirements according to current safety standards, starting with the mandatory risk assessment and then applying risk reduction measures, when transforming a typical manual final assembly station into an intelligent collaborative station. An important conclusion is that current safety standards and requirements must be updated and improved and the current collaborative modes defined by the standards community should be extended with a new mode, which in this paper is refereed tothedeliberative planning and acting mode.


ISO/TS 15066


Human-robot Interaction



operator education and training

safe interaction


Atieh Hanna

Volvo Group

Kristofer Bengtsson

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control

Per-Lage Götvall

Volvo Group

Mikael Ekström

Mälardalens högskola

IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA

19460740 (ISSN) 19460759 (eISSN)

Vol. 2020-September 424-431 9212127
978-172818956-7 (ISBN)

IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Vienna, Austria,

Virtual Commissioning of Vehicle Maintenance Operations, UNIFICATION

VINNOVA (2017-02245), 2017-06-01 -- 2020-05-31.

Subject Categories

Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics

Embedded Systems


Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance






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