Hierarchical Control of Electric Bus Lines
Paper in proceeding, 2020

In this paper, we propose a hierarchical control strategy for a line of electric buses with the double objective of minimizing energy consumption and providing regular service to the passengers. The state-space model for the buses is formulated in space rather than in time, which alleviates the need for integer decision variables to capture their behavior at bus stops. This enables us to first assemble a fully-centralized multi-objective line problem in the continuous nonlinear optimization framework. It is then reassembled into a hierarchical structure with two levels of control in order to improve on scalability and reliability. This new supervisory structure consists of a centralized line level controller which handles the time headway regularity of the buses, and of decentralized bus level controllers which simultaneously manage the energy consumption of each individual bus. Our method demonstrates good battery energy savings and regularity performances when compared to a classical holding strategy.

Nonlinear and optimal automotive control

Hierarchical control

Modeling and simulation of transportation systems

Electric vehicles

Bus bunching

Headway regularity

Electric and solar vehicles

Optimal control

Public transport


Rémi Lacombe

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Automatic Control

Sebastien Gros

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

Nikolce Murgovski

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Mechatronics

Balázs Adam Kulcsár

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Automatic Control


24058963 (eISSN)

Vol. 53 2 14179-14184

IFAC World Congress 2020
Berlin, Germany,

OPerational Network Energy managemenT for electrified buses (OPNET)

Swedish Energy Agency (46365-1), 2018-10-01 -- 2021-12-31.

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Computational Mathematics

Control Engineering

Computer Systems



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