Review of Technical Design and Safety Requirements for Vehicle Chargers and Their Infrastructure According to National Swedish and Harmonized European Standards
Review article, 2021

Battery electric vehicles demand a wide variety of charging networks, such as charging stations and wallboxes, to be set up in the future. The high charging power (typically in the range of a couple of kW up to a couple of hundred kW) and the possibly long duration of the charging process (up to more than 24 h) put some special requirements on the electrical infrastructure of charging stations, sockets, and plugs. This paper gives an overview of the technical design requirements and considerations for vehicle charging stations, sockets, and plugs, including their infrastructure, according to the Swedish Standard 4364000, "Low-voltage electrical installations-Rules for design and erection of electrical installations", and the corresponding harmonized European standards. In detail, the four internationally categorized charging modes are explained and the preferable charging plugs, including their two-bus communication, according to European Directives are shown. The dimensioning of the supply lines and the proper selection of the overcurrent protection device, the insulation monitor, and the residual current device are described. Furthermore, a comprehensive overview of the required safety measures, such as the application of an isolation transformer or the implementation of an overvoltage protection mechanism, and the limits for conducted electromagnetic emissions, such as low-frequency harmonics or high-frequency (150 kHz to 108 MHz) emissions, are given.

vehicle charging

battery chargers

harmonized standard

voltage drop

electric vehicles

charging plugs

charging modes

charging sockets

battery management systems

charging stations

design standards

harmonic emissions

vehicle safety


Anton Kersten

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering

Artem Rodionov

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering

Manuel Kuder

Bundeswehr University Munich

Thomas Hammarström

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering

Anton Lesnicar

Bundeswehr University Munich

Torbjörn Thiringer

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering


1996-1073 (ISSN) 19961073 (eISSN)

Vol. 14 11 3301

Subject Categories

Communication Systems

Energy Systems

Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering



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7/2/2021 8