Phytate degradation in composite wheat/cassava/sorghum bread: Effects of phytase-secreting yeasts and addition of yeast extracts
Journal article, 2024

Iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent in developing countries due to the consumption of cereal-based foods rich in phytate that chelates minerals such as iron and zinc making them unavailable for absorption by humans. The aim of the present study was to degrade phytic acid in composite flour (wheat/cassava/sorghum) bread by the addition of phytase-producing yeasts in the baking process to achieve a phytate-to-iron molar ratio <1 and a phytate-to-zinc molar ratio <15, ratios needed to achieve an enhanced absorption by humans. The high-phytase (HP)-producing yeasts were two Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YD80 and BY80) that have been genetically modified by a directed mutagenesis strategy, and Pichia kudriavzevii TY13 isolated from a Tanzanian lactic fermented maize gruel (togwa) and selected as naturally HP yeast. To further improve the phytase production by the yeasts, four different brands of phytase-promoting yeast extracts were added in the baking process. In addition, two yeast varieties were preincubated for 1 h at 30(degrees)C to initiate phytase biosynthesis. The phytate content was measured by high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) and the mineral content by ion chromatography (HPIC). The results showed that all three HP yeasts improved the phytate degradation compared with the composite bread with no added HP yeast. The composite bread with preincubated S. cerevisiae BY80 or P. kudriavzevii TY13 plus Bacto yeast extract resulted in the lowest phytate content (0.08 mu mol/g), which means a 99% reduction compared with the phytate content in the composite flour. With added yeast extracts from three of the four yeast extract brands in the baking process, all composite breads had a phytate reduction after 2-h fermentation corresponding to a phytate: iron molar ratio between 1.0 and 0.3 and a phytate: zinc molar ratio <3 suggesting a much-enhanced bioavailability of these minerals.



composite flour bread

yeast extract

Pichia kudriavzevii TY13

phytate degradation


Serafina Vilanculos

Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM)

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Ulf Svanberg

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Thomas Andlid

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Food Science and Nutrition

2048-7177 (eISSN)

Vol. 12 1 216-226

Subject Categories

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Food Science

Food Engineering



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Latest update

3/7/2024 9