Vortex rings in pure water under static external electric field
Journal article, 2005
The reproducible development of vortex rings in pure water under the action of a static external electric field is demonstrated. The phenomenon results from the electrochemical decomposition of water. Given the low conductivity of water in the absence of electrolyte, the field-driven buildup of hydroxide ions at the anode becomes essential to the proton release, which in turn is the result of the molecular O-2(g) evolution. Water recombination processes, which have protons flowing in a hydroxide background, as a key ingredient produce the phenomenon. (C) 2005 American Institute of Physics.