Wavelength Control of VCSELs using High-Contrast Gratings
Paper in proceedings, 2017
The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is a well-established light source for sensing and short-reach optical links. The surface emission allows wafer-scale testing enabling low-cost manufacturing, while the VCSELs’ small modal volume leads to low power consumption, high-speed modulation at small currents, and small footprint . Conventional VCSELs consist of an active region sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). Replacing the top DBR with a high-contrast grating reflector offers unique possibilities to engineer and control VCSEL emission wavelength and modal properties [2,3].
A high-contrast grating (HCG) is typically formed by bars of high refractive index suspended in air. HCGs with certain grating parameters (duty cycle, period, and thickness) can function as ultra-thin reflectors with close to 100% reflectivity . Besides the reflectivity, the grating parameters also influence the reflection phase. This enables fabrication of multi-wavelength VCSEL arrays by fabricating HCG-VCSELs with different grating parameters. In order to utilize the extraordinary properties of the HCG, the VCSEL mode must be sensitive to the HCG, which leads to complicated cavity configurations with coupled cavity effects and low optical confinement.
This talk will summarize experimental work performed at Chalmers University of Technology in collaboration with Hewlett Packard Enterprise. The design of HCGs and HCG-VCSELs will be presented as well as experimental results from 980 nm HCG-VCSELs and demonstration of post-growth wavelength setting for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) VCSEL arrays .
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This work was been supported by Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and the Swedish Research Council (VR). The epitaxial material was provided by IQE Europe.