Model for leisure boat activities and emissions – implementation for the Baltic Sea
Journal article, 2020

The activities and emissions from leisure boats in the Baltic Sea have been modeled in a comprehensive approach for the first time, using a new simulation model leisure Boat Emissions and Activities siMulator (BEAM). The model utilizes survey data to characterize the national leisure boat fleets. Leisure boats have been categorized based on their size, use and engine specifications, and for these subcategories emission factors for NOx, PM2.5, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and releases of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from antifouling paints have been estimated according to literature values. The modeling approach also considers the temporal and spatial distribution of leisure boat activities, which are applied to each simulated leisure boat separately. According to our results the CO and NMVOC emissions from leisure boats, as well as Cu and Zn released from antifouling paints, are significant when compared against the emissions originating from registered commercial shipping in the Baltic Sea. CO emissions equal 70 % of the registered shipping emissions and NMVOC emissions equal 160 % when compared against the modeled results in the Baltic Sea in 2014. Modeled NOx and PM2.5 from the leisure boats are less significant compared to the registered shipping emissions. The emissions from leisure boats are concentrated in the summer months of June, July and August and are released in the vicinity of inhabited coastal areas. Given the large emission estimates for leisure boats, this commonly overlooked source of emissions should be further investigated in greater detail.


Lasse Johansson

Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)

Erik Ytreberg

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Maritime Studies

Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen

Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)

Erik Fridell

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Martin Eriksson

Chalmers, Gothenburg Centre for Sustainable Development

Maria Lagerström

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Maritime Studies

Ilja Maljutenko

Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech)

Urmas Raudsepp

Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech)

Vivian Fischer

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

Eva Roth

University of Southern Denmark

Ocean Science

1812-0784 (ISSN) 18120792 (eISSN)

Vol. 16 5 1143-1163

Sustainable Shipping and Environment of the Baltic Sea region (SHEBA)

Baltic Organisations' Network for Funding Science EEIG (BONUS) (Call2014-41SHEBA), 2015-04-01 -- 2018-03-31.

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (NV06312-14,Dnr15/23), 2015-04-01 -- 2018-03-31.

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences

Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources

Environmental Sciences



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