Thermochemical Energy Storage with Integrated District Heat Production—A Case Study of Swede
Journal article, 2023

The implementation of electricity-charged thermochemical energy storage (TCES) using high-temperature solid cycles would benefit the energy system by enabling the absorption of variable renewable energy (VRE) and its conversion into dispatchable heat and power. Using a Swedish case study, this paper presents a process for TCES-integrated district heating (DH) production, assesses its technical suitability, and discusses some practical implications and additional implementation options. The mass and energy flows of a biomass plant retrofitted with an iron-based redox loop are calculated for nine specific scenarios that exemplify its operation under electricity generation mixes that differ with respect to variability and price. In addition, the use of two types of electrolyzers (low-temperature and high-temperature versions) is investigated. The results show that for the Swedish case, the proposed scheme is technically feasible and capable of covering the national DH demand by making use of the existing DH plants, with an estimated process energy efficiency (electricity to heat) of 90%. The results also show that for a retrofit of the entire Swedish DH fleet, the required inventories of iron are approximately 2.8 Mt for the intermediate scenario, which represents 0.3% and 11.0% of the national reserves and annual metallurgical production rates of the national industry, respectively. In addition to the dispatchable heat, the process generates a significant amount of nondispatchable heat, especially for the case that employs low-temperature electrolyzers. This added generation capacity allows the process to cover the heat demand while decreasing the maximum capacity of the charging side computed herein.

variable renewable energy (VRE)

Nordic region

electricity market

district heating (DH)

iron looping

thermochemical energy storage (TCES)


Diana Carolina Guio Perez

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Guillermo Martinez Castilla

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

David Pallarès

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Henrik Thunman

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Filip Johnsson

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology


1996-1073 (ISSN)

Vol. 16 3 1155

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Energy Engineering

Chemical Process Engineering

Energy Systems

Areas of Advance




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