Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO2 polluted model environment
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2010
Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation.
The present study employs SO2 and water to probe the behaviors of two anti-graffiti treatments, a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane (“Protectosil Antigraffiti” marketed by Degussa) and an organically modified silicate (Ormosil) synthesized from a polymer chain (polydimethyl siloxane, PDMS) and two network forming alkoxides (Zr propoxide and methyl triethoxy silane, MTES) dissolved in n-propanol, on five building materials, comprising limestone, aged lime mortar, hydrated cement mortar, granite, and brick material.
The materials were exposed to a synthetic atmosphere for 20 h in a climate chamber, 0.78 ± 0.03 ppm of SO2 and 95% RH. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectra were registered before and after exposure in the climate chamber in the cases of both treated and untreated samples. DR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, suggest the anti-graffiti Ormosil to suppress formation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate (the primary initial product of the reaction of calcium compounds with SO2 and water) on carbonate materials (limestone and lime mortar).
In case of the granite, brick and cement mortar, Ormosil has a negligible influence on the SO2 capture. While no sulfite formation was detected by DR-FTIR, gypsum is inferred to form due to metal oxides and minority compounds catalysed oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In case of brick, this understanding finds support from SEM images as well as EDX. A priori presence of gypsum in hydrated cement mortars prevents positive identification by SEM. However, support for sulfur accumulation in hydrated cement mortar is provided by means of EDX.
In case of a second anti-graffiti considered, Protectosil, no influence of the anti-graffiti treatment on the SO2 uptake of any of the building materials was observed.